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Environmental, Transportation, Social, and Time Barriers to Physical Activity

Amy I. Zlot, John Librett, David Buchner, and Tom Schmid


This study examines environmental, transportation, social, and time barriers to physical activity.


Survey questions from the nationally representative Greenstyles survey (N = 2181) were summed to create environmental, transportation, social, and time barrier variables. Logistic regression was used to determine if the barrier variables had a significant association with physical activity levels.


Those who have low barriers to physical activity are more likely to meet the recommended physical activity levels compared with those with medium and high barriers. In addition, transportation, social capital, and time barriers independently contributed to the low levels of physical activity.


Removal of multiple barriers to physical activity may have an additive effect of increasing physical activity levels in Americans. Promoting physical activity requires strategies and research across multiple sectors to mitigate these barriers.

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Measuring Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity in Adolescents

Katie E. Gunnell, Jennifer Brunet, Erin K. Wing, and Mathieu Bélanger


Perceived barriers to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) may contribute to the low rates of moderate-to-vigorous PA in adolescents. We examined the psychometric properties of scores from the perceived barriers to moderate-to-vigorous PA scale (PB-MVPA) by examining composite reliability and validity evidence based on the internal structure of the PB-MVPA and relations with other variables.


This study was a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2013 from adolescents (N = 507; M age = 12.40, SD = .62) via self-report scales.


Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, we found that perceived barriers were best represented as two factors representing internal (e.g., “I am not interested in physical activity”) and external (e.g., “I need equipment I don’t have”) dimensions. Composite reliability was over .80. Using multiple regression to examine the relationship between perceived barriers and moderate-to-vigorous PA, we found that perceived internal barriers were inversely related to moderate-to-vigorous PA (β = -.32, p < .05). Based on results of the analysis of variances, there were no known-group sex differences for perceived internal and external barriers (p < .26).


The PB-MVPA scale demonstrated evidence of score reliability and validity. To improve the understanding of the impact of perceived barriers on moderate-to-vigorous PA in adolescents, researchers should examine internal and external barriers separately.

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Barriers to Physical Activity for People With Long-Term Neurological Conditions: A Review Study

Hilda F. Mulligan, Leigh A. Hale, Lisa Whitehead, and G. David Baxter

People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between 1999 and week one 2010 for peer reviewed studies that fit the aim of the review. Identified barriers to physical activity participation were categorized into the World Health Organization’s ICF framework of domains. Of the 2,061 studies uncovered in the search, 29 met inclusion criteria and 28 met quality appraisal. Findings showed that barriers to physical activity participation arise from personal factors that, coupled with lack of motivational support from the environment, challenge perceptions of safety and confidence to exercise.

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Motives and Barriers to Physical Activity Among Older Adults of Different Socioeconomic Status

Phillip M. Gray, Marie H. Murphy, Alison M. Gallagher, and Ellen E. A. Simpson

This study explored motives and barriers to physical activity (PA) among older adults of differing socioeconomic status (SES) utilizing a self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory framework. Focus groups (n = 4) were conducted with older adults (n = 28) from two SES groups, using thematic analysis to identify motives and barriers. Integrated and identified regulations and, to a lesser extent, intrinsic motives, were evident across SES groups. Verbal persuasion and affective and physiological states emerged as prominent efficacy sources regardless of SES. More barriers were reported by the low SES group, with health conditions, neighborhood safety, and PA guidelines knowledge emerging as most salient. Time emerged as a prominent barrier for the high SES group. Integrated and identified regulations should be fostered in future interventions and policy regardless of SES. Barriers to PA varied across SES groups; thus future interventions and policy should account for such differences.

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Motivators and Barriers for Older People Participating in Resistance Training: A Systematic Review

Elissa Burton, Kaela Farrier, Gill Lewin, Simone Pettigrew, Anne-Marie Hill, Phil Airey, Liz Bainbridge, and Keith D. Hill

Regular participation in resistance training is important for older people to maintain their health and independence, yet participation rates are low. The study aimed to identify motivators and barriers to older people participating in resistance training. A systematic review was conducted including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-method studies. Searches generated 15,920 citations from six databases, with 14 studies (n = 1,937 participants) included. In total, 92 motivators and 24 barriers were identified. Motivators specific to participating in resistance training included preventing deterioration (disability), reducing risk of falls, building (toning) muscles, feeling more alert, and better concentration. Looking too muscular and thinking participation increased the risk of having a heart attack, stroke, or death, despite the minimal likelihood of these occurring, were barriers. The analysis indicates that increasing participation in resistance training among older people should focus on the specific benefits valued by older people and the dissemination of accurate information to counter misperceptions.

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Factors Associated With Ongoing Participation in Structured Exercise Among People Aged 50 Years and Older

Juliana Souza de Oliveira, Catherine Sherrington, Louise Rowling, and Anne Tiedemann

; Picorelli, Pereira, Pereira, Felicio, & Sherrington, 2014 ), in the face of low social support, low motivation, or environmental barriers ( Franco et al., 2015 ). Nonetheless, the benefits of exercise are maximized with continued and regular participation over the long term ( Bennett & Winters-Stone, 2011

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Athletic Trainers’ Methods for Determining Return to Activity for Patients With an Ankle Sprain Part II: Influences of Selected Outcomes

Ryan S. McCann, Ashley M.B. Suttmiller, Phillip A. Gribble, and Julie M. Cavallario

sprain patient evaluation, as well as potential barriers to implementation of these methods. Methods We used a consensual qualitative research design to explore the topic of return to activity following an ankle sprain with eight participating ATs. We used commonly recommended assessments of function

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What Recess Policy? Assessing Arizona Schools’ Adherence to Senate Bill 1083

Janelle Griffo, Kahyun Nam, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Kulinna, and Allison Ross

practices related to recess in Arizona are in place, and the self-reported barriers to implementing recess in Arizona. By showcasing the results of Arizona school’s compliance with the PA laws established, imperative conclusions can be drawn to take appropriate actions to increase students’ PA opportunities

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The Influence of Socializing Agents and Teaching Context Among Teachers of Different Dispositions Toward Change

Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Tom Templin

toward change perceive socializing agents and teaching context as barriers to or facilitators of making pedagogical change. With consideration given to individual teacher dispositions toward change and grounded in teacher socialization theory, the following research questions guided this study: (a

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Chapter 6: Recruitment in PETE: Interview Results and Discussion

Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers, and Chad M. Killian

accounts of, perceived successful strategies for increasing student enrollments and barriers to participating in recruitment are warranted as many PETE faculty members find themselves in a position where they feel compelled to increase program enrollments or face elimination ( Ward, 2015 ). With this in