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Brett S. Pexa, Eric D. Ryan, Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Elizabeth Teel, Terri Jo Rucinski, and Joseph B. Myers

Baseball pitching is a dynamic movement that results in some of the highest kinematic and kinetic values in sport. Pitchers generate glenohumeral internal rotation angular velocities of over 7000° per second and internal rotational torques of 94 to 96 Nm. 1 At ball release, the shoulder moves from

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Noah X. Tocci, David R. Howell, Dai Sugimoto, Corey Dawkins, Amy Whited, and Donald Bae

In recent years, baseball-related injuries have considerably increased among players of all ages and skill levels. 1 – 6 Specifically, between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s, arm-related surgical cases for high school and collegiate baseball pitchers have increased. 1 , 7 , 8 Among

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Adam Culiver, J. Craig Garrison, Kalyssa M. Creed, John E. Conway, Shiho Goto, and Sherry Werner

Previous data suggest that lower YBT-LQ composite scores may be associated with risk of injury in the LE 20 and in the UE may help to distinguish injured versus healthy baseball players. 13 High school and college pitchers with a confirmed ulnar collateral ligament tear had significantly lower YBT

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Shonn P. Hendee, Richard M. Greenwald, and Joseph J. Crisco

In this study we investigated the compressive quasi-static mechanical properties and dynamic impact behavior of baseballs. Our purpose was to determine if static testing could be used to describe dynamic ball impact properties, and to compare static and dynamic properties between traditional and modified baseballs. Average stiffness and energy loss from 19 ball models were calculated from quasi-static compression data. Dynamic impact variables were determined from force–time profiles of balls impacted into a flat stationary target at velocities from 13.4 to 40.2 m/s. Peak force increased linearly with increasing ball model stiffness. Impulse of impact increased linearly with ball mass. Coefficient of restitution (COR) decreased with increasing velocity in all balls tested, although the rate of decrease varied among the different ball models. Neither quasi-static energy loss nor hysteresis was useful in predicting dynamic energy loss (COR2). The results between traditional and modified balls varied widely in both static and dynamic tests, which is related to the large differences in mass and stiffness between the two groups. These results indicate that static parameters can be useful in predicting some dynamic impact variables, potentially reducing the complexity of testing. However, some variables, such as ball COR, could not be predicted with the static tests performed in this study.

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Joseph J. Crisco, Michael J. Rainbow, Joel B. Schwartz, and Bethany J. Wilcox

The purpose of this study was to examine the batting cage performance of wood and nonwood baseball bats used at the youth level. Three wood and ten nonwood bats were swung by 22 male players (13 to 18 years old) in a batting cage equipped with a 3-dimensional motion capture (300 Hz) system. Batted ball speeds were compared using a one-way ANOVA and bat swing speeds were analyzed as a function of bat moment of inertia by linear regression. Batted ball speeds were significantly faster for three nonwood bat models (P < .001), significantly slower for one nonwood model, and not different for six nonwood bats when compared with wood bats. Bat impact speed significantly (P < .05) decreased with increasing bat moment of inertia for the 13-, 14-, and 15-year-old groups, but not for the other age groups. Ball-bat coefficients of restitution (BBCOR) for all nonwood were greater than for wood, but this factor alone did not correlate with bat performance. Our findings indicate that increases in BBCOR and swing speed were not associated with faster batted ball speeds for the bats studied whose moment of inertia was substantially less than that of a wood bat of similar length.

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LeRoy W. Alaways, Sean P. Mish, and Mont Hubbard

Pitched-baseball trajectories were measured in three dimensions during competitions at the 1996 Summer Olympic games using two high-speed video cameras and standard DLT techniques. A dynamic model of baseball flight including aerodynamic drag and Magnus lift forces was used to simulate trajectories. This simulation together with the measured trajectory position data constituted the components of an estimation scheme to determine 8 of the 9 release conditions (3 components each of velocity, position, and angular velocity) as well as the mean drag coefficient CD and terminal conditions at home plate. The average pitch loses 5% of its initial velocity during flight. The dependence of estimated drag coefficient on Reynolds number hints at the possibility of the drag crisis occurring in pitched baseballs. Such data may be used to quantify a pitcher’s performance (including fastball speed and amount of curve-ball break) and its improvement or degradation over time. It may also be used to understand the effects of release parameters on baseball trajectories.

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Craig Greenham

approached the star baseball player and pleaded with him, “It ain’t so, Joe, is it?” Fullerton wrote that Jackson’s reply was, “Yes, kid, I’m afraid it is.” Over time, the myth has evolved and the child’s query became a punchier, “Say it ain’t so, Joe.” It is widely accepted by baseball historians that

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Travis R. Bell and Victor D. Kidd

Baseball and rap music are often not considered culturally or historically synonymous. This stems from baseball’s well-traced history of segregation and rap music’s connection to Black America. However, a shift appears underway as walk-up songs for Major League Baseball (MLB) players indicate a

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Alexander L. Curry and Tiara Good

On March 12, 2020, one day after the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a global pandemic, Major League Baseball (MLB) canceled the remainder of its spring training games and postponed the start of its regular season. Two months later—at the time of this writing—MLB remains suspended

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Joseph J. Crisco, Nikolas J. Osvalds, and Michael J. Rainbow

Swinging a baseball bat to hit a ball is a complex task requiring exquisite timing and strength in both the upper and lower body to be successful. 1 At ball impact, the bat is approximately horizontal and reaches its maximum speed prior to ball impact. Increasing a batter’s maximum bat swing speed