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How Do Adult-Oriented Coaching Practices Change Over Time and Correspond With Changes in Key Criterion Outcomes? An 8-Week Study

Derrik Motz, Bradley W. Young, Scott Rathwell, and Bettina Callary

), standardized ( z scores) skewness and kurtosis thresholds are 1.96 when n  < 50 (i.e., our coach sample) and 3.29 when 50 <  n  < 300 (i.e., our athlete sample). CART-Q = Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire; BNSSS = Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale; PNTS = Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale; CIA

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Exploring Basic Needs, Motivation, and Retention Among Female Sport Officials

Janna K. Sunde, Robin Tharle-Oluk, Alice A. Theriault, and David J. Hancock

/or quitting officiating. The survey used two existing scales (Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale [BNSSS] and Referee Retention Scale [RRS]), along with additional questions deemed important for the study purpose. The first section of the survey was the BNSSS ( Ng et al., 2011 ), which included 20

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Social Psychological and Developmental Perspectives on Early Sport Specialization

Thelma S. Horn

One of the primary dilemmas surrounding the topic of early sport specialization is whether the practice develops talent or creates long-term psychological problems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this issue using psychosocial and developmental frameworks. This review begins with an overview of several developmentallybased constructs (e.g., biological maturation, perceived competence, body image, self-identity, motivational orientation) that are relevant to the sport domain. These developmental progressions are then used to address some potential implications for children who begin intensive training and competition at an early age. Next, some socioenvironmental factors are explored, with specific links made to the early sport specialization process. Finally, the paper ends with four recommendations for future research on the topic.

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Integration of Information and Communication Technology and Pupils’ Motivation in a Physical Education Setting

Pascal Legrain, Nicolas Gillet, Christophe Gernigon, and Marc-André Lafreniere

The purpose of this study was to test an integrative model regarding the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on achievement in physical education. Pupils’ perceptions of autonomy-support from teacher, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and self-determined motivation were considered to mediate the impact of ICT on pupils’ cognitive skills and motor performance. Ninety-six pupils (44 boys and 52 girls; M age = 12.40 years) were assigned to either the ICT or the traditional teaching (TT) condition of a quasi-experimental design. Results from path analyses supported the hypotheses that: (a) perception of autonomy support from teachers satisfies pupils’ basic psychological needs; (b) basic needs satisfaction in turn leads to greater self-determined motivation, which (c) then contributes to the enhancement of cognitive skills and motor performance.

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Acting One’s Age in Physical Exercise: Do Perceived Age Norms Explain Autonomous Motivation Among Older Adults?

Johan Pelssers, Emalie Hurkmans, Jeroen Scheerder, Norbert Vanbeselaere, Steven Vos, Tim Smits, and Filip Boen

and a more maintained exercise involvement ( Teixeira et al., 2012 ). In the present paper, we will use the term experienced basic needs satisfaction (BNS) as a general term to describe each individual’s relative (or predicted) rating on an aggregate scale measuring their satisfaction of autonomy

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Exploring Servant Leadership and Needs Satisfaction in the Sport for Development and Peace Context

Jon Welty Peachey, Laura Burton, Janelle Wells, and Mi Ryoung Chung

). Thus, the following hypotheses are posited: H1: Servant leadership is positively related to the work-related basic needs satisfaction of autonomy. H2: Servant leadership is positively related to the work-related basic needs satisfaction of competency. H3: Servant leadership is positively related to the

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Youth Sport Coaches’ Well-Being Across the Season: The Psychological Costs and Benefits of Giving Empowering and Disempowering Sports Coaching to Athletes

Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug, and Yngvar Ommundsen

self-reported empowering and disempowering coach behaviors at the beginning of the season (T1) to investigate the associations of those subgroups with sets of criterion variables (i.e., coaches’ self-report measures of basic needs satisfaction, subjective vitality, and affect) at the end of the season

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players (Mage = 14.21 years, SD = 1.67 years, range =12–18 years). Using the Coach’s Interpersonal Style Questionnaire, Basic Needs Satisfaction in Exercise Scale, Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale and Sport Motivation Questionnaire, structural equation model analysis ( X 2 /df = 2.31; CFI = 0.91, TLI

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

antisocial behaviors would have positive and negative effects, respectively, on antisocial behavior in competition. Participants were young team sport athletes divided into two samples. In the first sample, participants completed measures of perceived autonomy support, basic needs satisfaction, autonomous

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The Well-Being of Elite Volleyball Athletes: A Scoping Review of Methods Using Wellness Questionnaires

André Rebelo, João R. Pereira, Diogo V. Martinho, and João Valente-dos-Santos

, introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation; Lonsdale et al., 2008 ); the Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale, which is a self-report measure that assesses the degree to which athletes feel their three basic psychological needs (i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are satisfied