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Derrik Motz, Bradley W. Young, Scott Rathwell, and Bettina Callary

with Kim ( 2013 ), standardized ( z scores) skewness and kurtosis thresholds are 1.96 when n  < 50 (i.e., our coach sample) and 3.29 when 50 <  n  < 300 (i.e., our athlete sample). CART-Q = Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire; BNSSS = Basic Needs Satisfaction in Sport Scale; PNTS = Psychological

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Thelma S. Horn

One of the primary dilemmas surrounding the topic of early sport specialization is whether the practice develops talent or creates long-term psychological problems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this issue using psychosocial and developmental frameworks. This review begins with an overview of several developmentallybased constructs (e.g., biological maturation, perceived competence, body image, self-identity, motivational orientation) that are relevant to the sport domain. These developmental progressions are then used to address some potential implications for children who begin intensive training and competition at an early age. Next, some socioenvironmental factors are explored, with specific links made to the early sport specialization process. Finally, the paper ends with four recommendations for future research on the topic.

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Pascal Legrain, Nicolas Gillet, Christophe Gernigon, and Marc-André Lafreniere

The purpose of this study was to test an integrative model regarding the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on achievement in physical education. Pupils’ perceptions of autonomy-support from teacher, satisfaction of basic psychological needs, and self-determined motivation were considered to mediate the impact of ICT on pupils’ cognitive skills and motor performance. Ninety-six pupils (44 boys and 52 girls; M age = 12.40 years) were assigned to either the ICT or the traditional teaching (TT) condition of a quasi-experimental design. Results from path analyses supported the hypotheses that: (a) perception of autonomy support from teachers satisfies pupils’ basic psychological needs; (b) basic needs satisfaction in turn leads to greater self-determined motivation, which (c) then contributes to the enhancement of cognitive skills and motor performance.

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Johan Pelssers, Emalie Hurkmans, Jeroen Scheerder, Norbert Vanbeselaere, Steven Vos, Tim Smits, and Filip Boen

and a more maintained exercise involvement ( Teixeira et al., 2012 ). In the present paper, we will use the term experienced basic needs satisfaction (BNS) as a general term to describe each individual’s relative (or predicted) rating on an aggregate scale measuring their satisfaction of autonomy

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Jon Welty Peachey, Laura Burton, Janelle Wells, and Mi Ryoung Chung

). Thus, the following hypotheses are posited: H1: Servant leadership is positively related to the work-related basic needs satisfaction of autonomy. H2: Servant leadership is positively related to the work-related basic needs satisfaction of competency. H3: Servant leadership is positively related to the

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Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug, and Yngvar Ommundsen

self-reported empowering and disempowering coach behaviors at the beginning of the season (T1) to investigate the associations of those subgroups with sets of criterion variables (i.e., coaches’ self-report measures of basic needs satisfaction, subjective vitality, and affect) at the end of the season

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players (Mage = 14.21 years, SD = 1.67 years, range =12–18 years). Using the Coach’s Interpersonal Style Questionnaire, Basic Needs Satisfaction in Exercise Scale, Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale and Sport Motivation Questionnaire, structural equation model analysis ( X 2 /df = 2.31; CFI = 0.91, TLI

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

antisocial behaviors would have positive and negative effects, respectively, on antisocial behavior in competition. Participants were young team sport athletes divided into two samples. In the first sample, participants completed measures of perceived autonomy support, basic needs satisfaction, autonomous

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Rachel Arnold, Nicole Bolter, Lori Dithurbide, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin, and Kathleen Wilson

Edited by Kim Gammage

, basic needs satisfaction, perceived motivational climate, mood, depression, sleep quality, and anxiety. In terms of mental health, the results indicated that the sample had low total mood disturbance and trait anxiety, no depressive symptoms, and poor sleep quality. In terms of motivational climate, a

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Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston, and Kyle F. Paradis

basic needs satisfaction and positive/negative affect in adult sport participants. More specifically, autonomy support and controlling behaviors from the coach have been associated with well-being and ill-being through either need satisfaction or need thwarting of autonomy, influencing the internalized