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Fernando Naclerio, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala, Mar Larrosa, Aitor Centeno, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao and Diego Moreno-Pérez

attenuate muscle disruption and optimize changes in body composition, but this practice may not have a meaningful effect on performance compared with the ingestion of carbohydrate alone ( McLellan et al., 2014 ). Both whey and beef are high-quality protein sources with a very similar amino acid composition

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Fernando Naclerio, Marco Seijo-Bujia, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala and Conrad P. Earnest

Beef powder is a new high-quality protein source scarcely researched relative to exercise performance. The present study examined the impact of ingesting hydrolyzed beef protein, whey protein, and carbohydrate on strength performance (1RM), body composition (via plethysmography), limb circumferences and muscular thickness (via ultrasonography), following an 8-week resistance-training program. After being randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Beef, Whey, or Carbohydrate, twenty four recreationally physically active males (n = 8 per treatment) ingested 20 g of supplement, mixed with orange juice, once a day (immediately after workout or before breakfast). Post intervention changes were examined as percent change and 95% CIs. Beef (2.0%, CI, 0.2–2.38%) and Whey (1.4%, CI, 0.2–2.6%) but not Carbohydrate (0.0%, CI, -1.2–1.2%) increased fat-free mass. All groups increased vastus medialis thickness: Beef (11.1%, CI, 6.3–15.9%), Whey (12.1%, CI, 4.0, -20.2%), Carbohydrate (6.3%, CI, 1.9–10.6%). Beef (11.2%, CI, 5.9–16.5%) and Carbohydrate (4.5%, CI, 1.6–7.4%), but not Whey (1.1%, CI, -1.7–4.0%), increased biceps brachialis thickness, while only Beef increased arm (4.8%, CI, 2.3–7.3%) and thigh (11.2%, 95%CI 0.4–5.9%) circumferences. Although the three groups significantly improved 1RM Squat (Beef 21.6%, CI 5.5–37.7%; Whey 14.6%, CI, 5.9–23.3%; Carbohydrate 19.6%, CI, 2.2–37.1%), for the 1RM bench press the improvements were significant for Beef (15.8% CI 7.0–24.7%) and Whey (5.8%, CI, 1.7–9.8%) but not for carbohydrate (11.4%, CI, -0.9-23.6%). Protein-carbohydrate supplementation supports fat-free mass accretion and lower body hypertrophy. Hydrolyzed beef promotes upper body hypertrophy along with similar performance outcomes as observed when supplementing with whey isolate or maltodextrin.

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Mark Messina, Heidi Lynch, Jared M. Dickinson and Katharine E. Reed

. Funnel plots showed no evidence of publication bias (data not shown). Figure 1 —Flow diagram showing outcomes of literature search and inclusion/exclusion of studies at each stage. Of the nine studies included in the analysis, the comparator protein to soy was whey in five studies and beef or dairy or

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J. Luke Pryor, Evan C. Johnson, Jeffery Del Favero, Andrew Monteleone, Lawrence E. Armstrong and Nancy R. Rodriguez

Postexercise protein and sodium supplementation may aid recovery and rehydration. Preserved beef provides protein and contains high quantities of sodium that may alter performance related variables in runners. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a commercial beef product postexercise on sodium and water balance. A secondary objective was to characterize effects of the supplementation protocols on hydration, blood pressure, body mass, and running economy. Eight trained males (age = 22 ± 3 y, V̇O2max = 66.4 ± 4.2 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three identical weeks of run training (6 run·wk-1, 45 ± 6 min·run-1, 74 ± 5% HRR). After exercise, subjects consumed either, a beef nutritional supplement (beef jerky; [B]), a standard recovery drink (SRD), or SRD+B in a randomized counterbalanced design. Hydration status was assessed via urinary biomarkers and body mass. No main effects of treatment were observed for 24 hr urine volume (SRD, 1.7 ± 0.5; B, 1.8 ± 0.6; SRD+B, 1.4 ± 0.4 L·d-1), urine specific gravity (1.016 ± 0.005, 1.018 ± 0.006, 1.017 ± 0.006) or body mass (68.4 ± 8.2, 68.3 ± 7.7, 68.2 ± 8.1 kg). No main effect of treatment existed for sodium intake—loss (-713 ± 1486; -973 ± 1123; -980 ± 1220 mg·d-1). Mean arterial pressure (81.0 ± 4.6, 81.1 ± 7.3, 83.8 ± 5.4 mm Hg) and average exercise running economy (V̇O2: SRD, 47.9 ± 3.2; B, 47.2 ± 2.6; SRD+B, 46.2 ± 3.4 ml·kg-1·min-1) was not affected. Urinary sodium excretion accounted for the daily sodium intake due to the beef nutritional supplement. Findings suggest the commercial beef snack is a viable recovery supplement following endurance exercise without concern for hydration status, performance decrements, or cardiovascular consequences.

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Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw and Louise M. Burke

nonstandardized broths varied by one or more of the following: the source of the bone (i.e., chicken vs. beef), the type of the bone (i.e., standard soup bone vs. marrow bones), and cooking methods (duration of cooking, stove top vs. slow cooker, and addition of vinegar). Table  1 summarizes the final range of

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

muesli Fruit  PCHO       Omelet*    LCHF LCHF granola Greek yogurt Almond milk Savory crepe Bacon Avocado Berry + coconut parfait Cauliflower rosti Egg Hollandaise sauce LCHF bircher Muesli Lunch  HCHO Ham + salad wrap Fruit Yogurt Turkey, cranberry +  salad sandwich Yogurt Fried rice Yogurt Beef, tomato

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Alba Reguant-Closa, Margaret M. Harris, Tim G. Lohman and Nanna L. Meyer

 al., 2019 ). Specifically, when working with and using the AP, the following recommendations apply: (a) reduce animal protein on the plates (especially beef and dairy), (b) include more plant-based protein sources on the plates, (c) balance high-protein foods from plants and animal sources on the same plate

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Christopher C. Webster, Jeroen Swart, Timothy D. Noakes and James A. Smith

(lamb and beef), eggs, nuts and nut butters, and nut/seed breads. He ate 3 meals per day with minimal snacking (beside black tea and coffee). Breakfast was often eaten after he had trained fasted, although he would eat breakfast 3 hours prior to important training sessions or races. During an Ironman

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Julien Louis, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Olivier Dupuy and Thierry Bernard

–40 g of Proteins per Meal/Snack Amount of proteins (g) Animal sources  One medium chicken/turkey fillet (∼120 g) 35  One medium beef steak (∼110 g) 31  One small tin of tuna in brine (100 g) 25  One medium fish fillet (∼100 g) 22.5  Whey/casein protein powder (30 g) 22.5  Three medium eggs 20  Cow milk

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Tshepang Tshube and Stephanie J. Hanrahan

example, Botswana is a pastoral community in which cattle play a pivotal role in the economic and social lives of its citizens ( Mugane, 2003 ). Cattle are a significant source of income; they also provide Batswana (people of Botswana) with beef and milk, and are an indicator of wealth. Most profoundly