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Diana Marina Camargo, Paula Camila Ramírez, Vanesa Quiroga, Paola Ríos, Rogério César Férmino and Olga L. Sarmiento

Background: Public parks are an important resource for the promotion of physical activity (PA). This is the first study in Colombia and the fourth in Latin America to describe the characteristics of park users and their levels of PA using objective measures. Methods: A systematic observation assessed sex, age, and the level of PA of users of 10 parks in an intermediate-size city in Colombia, classified in low (5 parks) and high (5 parks) socioeconomic status (SES). A total of 10 daily observations were conducted, in 5 days of the week during 3 periods: morning, afternoon, and evening. Results: In total, 16,671 observations were completed, recording 46,047 users. A higher number of users per park, per day, were recorded in high SES (1195) versus low SES (647). More men were observed in low-SES than high-SES parks (70.1% vs 54.2%), as well as more children were observed in low-SES than high-SES parks (30.1% vs 15.9%). Older adults in high-SES parks were more frequent (9.5% vs 5.2%). Moderate to vigorous PA was higher in low-SES parks (71.7% vs 63.2%). Conclusions: Low-SES parks need more green spaces, walk/bike trails, and areas for PA. All parks need new programs to increase the number of users and their PA level, considering sex, age group, and period of the week.

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Colleen K. Kilanowski, Angela R. Consalvi and Leonard H. Epstein

Activity measurement using a uniaxial electronic pedometer was compared to a triaxial accelerometer and behavioral observation measurements for ten 7−12-year-old children studied during high intensity recreational and low intensity classroom periods. Correlations between all measures were significant for recreational and classroom periods combined, and recreational periods alone (r’s > .90, p < .001). Correlations between the pedometer and accelerometer were significantly lower during classroom versus recreational activities (0.98 vs. 0.50, p < .05). This may be due in part to the uniaxial pedometer being sensitive only to vertical and not back and forward or side to side movement.

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Bernadette M. Twardy and Beverly J. Yerg

This study explored the relationships between teacher planning behaviors and the inclass behaviors of teachers and learners in a 30-min lesson on the volleyball spike. All 30 teacher subjects progressed through three consecutive stages: 30-min planning phase, 30-min instructional phase, and a brief self-report phase. During the planning session, subjects were instructed to plan their lesson by utilizing the talk aloud technique. Planning data were coded through the use of planning indicators obtained from the Florida Performance Measurement System. Immediately after the planning phase each subject implemented his or her lesson. Teacher and learner behavior was live-coded by three trained observers using Birdwell’s Academic Learning Time-Physical Education-Teacher Behavior Observation System (ALT-PE-TB). Frequencies of teacher planning behavior were compared with the frequencies of inclass teaching behavior and learner behavior. The results indicated that significant relationships did exist between certain planning behaviors and the inclass behavior of teachers and learners.

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David P. McKee, Colin A.G. Boreham, Marie H. Murphy and Alan M. Nevill

Activity measurement using a uniaxial pedometer was validated against behavioral observation using the Children’s Activity Rating Scale (CARS) in 30 three- to four-year-old children in a nursery school setting. Correlations were calculated for individual children, whereas the relationship for the total group was investigated using multilevel linear regression. The mean counts for boys and girls for the Digiwalker™ were 66.8 (± 64.0) and 47.4 (± 61.3; p < .01) steps per 3 minutes, respectively, whereas the mean CARS scores for boys and girls were 1.8 (± 0.6) and 1.6 (± 0.6; p < .01), respectively. Within-child correlations for CARS versus Digiwalker counts ranged from 0.64 to 0.95 with a median value of 0.86, whereas the multilevel analysis provided strong evidence of a relationship between CARS and Digiwalker (all p < .001). Data from the current study show that gender differences in physical levels exist in very young children and support the utility of the Digiwalker pedometer for assessing physical activity in this age group.

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Philip W. Scruggs

Background:

The aim of this study was to advance physical activity (PA) surveillance in physical education (PE) by establishing a steps/min guideline that would accurately classify fifth and sixth graders as engaging in PA for 10 min or one-third of the PE lesson time.

Methods:

Data were collected on 147 (11.48 ± 0.83 y) girls and boys in 14 intact classes from five schools. PA was assessed via behavioral observation (i.e., criterion) and pedometry (i.e., predictor). Logistic and linear regression techniques were employed to generate pedometer steps/min cut points. Classification of outcome probability (c), sensitivity, specificity, and receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve statistics tested the decision accuracy of generated steps/min cut points.

Results:

PA measures were strongly correlated (r ≥ 0.80, P < 0.01). A steps/min interval of 60 to 62 was the best cut point indicator of students meeting the PA guidelines.

Conclusions:

Findings support steps/min as an accurate quantifier of PA time in structured PA programs. PA surveillance via pedometry in PE using empirically derived criteria is an objective, valid, and practical mechanism for assessing a primary PE and public health outcome.

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Ryan W. Guenter, John G.H. Dunn and Nicholas L. Holt

, scouts engaged in a great deal of behavioral observation of players to evaluate intangibles. However, scouts’ evaluations were not limited to behavioral observation. In fact, the scouts gathered information about intangibles that influenced draft rankings in a number of ways. We labeled this information

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Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid

consistent with coaching behavior observation research where instruction is the most frequently observed behavior ( Cushion, 2010 ). The high proportion of instructional behaviors has been associated with the view that coaching is about the transmission of knowledge from the more knowledgeable (coach) to the

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Stephen Macdonald and Justine Allen

: Transformational leadership behaviours To examine the transformational leadership behaviours in the coaching session Video analysis of session using a bespoke TL behavior observation tool based on DTLI behaviours ( Callow, et al., 2009 ) Systematic observation of coaching (observer’s perspective) The interactive