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Valerie Senkowski, Clara Gannon, and Paul Branscum

, there is a need for more research to identify and isolate intervention methods that are associated with positive outcomes across each of the theoretical constructs of the TPB ( Chase, 2014 ; Steinmetz et al., 2016 ). No review to date has evaluated behavior change techniques (BCTs) used in TPB

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Justin Kompf

intend to exercise but not have a plan in place to exercise. Planning is a behavior change technique that can translate motivation to behavior. Volitional behaviors such as exercise necessitate that individual’s plan what they are going to do and where they are going to exercise. Planning is considered a

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Samuel R. Nyman

health strategy and for their continued quality of life ( Ginis et al., 2017 ; Nyman & Szymczynska, 2016 ). Behavior change techniques (BCTs) are widely used in health promotion interventions and, in particular, the promotion of physical activity. However, the use of BCTs in physical activity promotion

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Jaclyn P. Maher and David E. Conroy

This study was designed to examine the moderating influence of habit strength on daily action planning effects on physical activity and sedentary behavior. A 2 by 2 design was used with experimental factors corresponding to action planning interventions for (a) engaging in physical activity and (b) limiting or interrupting sedentary behavior. At the end of each day for 1 week, university students (n = 195) completed (a) a questionnaire about their behavior during the day and behavioral intentions for the following day and (b) a planning intervention(s) corresponding to their randomly assigned experimental condition. Action planning increased physical activity in those with weak habits but decreased physical activity in those with strong habits compared with those who did not create action plans. Action planning did not impact sedentary behavior. Action planning was a useful behavior change technique for increasing physical activity in people with weak habits, but may be iatrogenic for those with strong habits.

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Nadja Willinger, James Steele, Lou Atkinson, Gary Liguori, Alfonso Jimenez, Steve Mann, and Elizabeth Horton

developed by the research team and characteristics of included studies (eg, type and duration of the intervention(s), follow-up assessments, PA goal or recommendation, applied behavior change techniques) and study subjects (eg, gender, age, and body mass index) were recorded. Adoption and maintenance rates

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Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin, and Jean Côté

that was not specifically designed to teach TFL behaviors (i.e., the Mastery Approach to Coaching program; Smith, Smoll & Cumming, 2007 ). Similarly, the intervention was not explicitly informed by behavior-change techniques and thus did not identify the conditions that specify why, when, and how

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Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton, and Ben Jones

. Step 7: Identify Behavior Change Techniques Behavior change techniques are the “active ingredients” within an intervention, designed to bring about the desired behavioral change ( Michie et al., 2014 ). There are 93 consensually agreed behavior change techniques ( Michie et al., 2011 ), which were

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Laura J. Houghton and Zoe R. Knowles

The purpose of this case study is to offer reflections on the personal experiences, processes of behavioral change; and subsequent outcomes of designing and implementing a collaborative exercise psychology intervention. The intervention, based on Bandura’s (1977) Self Efficacy Theory and using self-efficacy related behavior change techniques (Michie et al., 2015), aimed to provide families affected by health inequalities with opportunities to enhance their understanding of health and make positive behavioral changes. This case is based around one female client aged 48 years of age who took part in the project with her ten-year-old daughter. Pre-intervention the client was engaging in minimal levels of weekly physical activity and reported poor self-rated mental well-being. Through improvements in self-efficacy, achieved through opportunities on the project, the client was able to make notable improvements to her physical activity levels leading to significant weight loss and improvements in mental well-being. From the practitioners’ perspective, reflection on areas for future work within the field of exercise psychology, particularly guidance on developing effective client-practitioner relationships with ‘hard-to-reach’ individuals and groups is warranted. More consideration for the suitability of the PA guidelines for individuals with poor physical and mental health is also required.

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David P. French, Catherine D. Darker, Frank F. Eves, and Falko F. Sniehotta

The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) has been extensively used in predictive studies, but there have been considerably fewer experimental tests of the theory. One reason for this is that the guidance on developing concrete intervention strategies from the abstract theory is vague, and there are few exemplars of how to do this. The aim of this article is to provide such an exemplar. The development of an intervention to increase walking in the general public is described, based on the TPB, extended to include postvolitional processes. Identification of target constructs, elicitation of key salient beliefs underpinning these constructs, selection of appropriate behavior change techniques, and technique refinement. Each step is based on available evidence and consistent with theory. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) was identified as the key determinant of walking intentions, with an “intention-behavior gap” noted. A brief intervention was developed, using techniques to increase PBC by rehearsal of previous successful performance of behavior, along with planning techniques to translate motivation into behavior. This systematic approach taken should provide a model for others. The intervention has demonstrated efficacy in producing large changes in objectively measured walking behavior, in 2 separate evaluations reported elsewhere.

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Samantha M. Gray, Peggy Chen, Lena Fleig, Paul A. Gardiner, Megan M. McAllister, Joseph H. Puyat, Joanie Sims-Gould, Heather A. McKay, Meghan Winters, and Maureen C. Ashe

incrementally increasing physical activity through behavior change techniques, incorporating the community environment. Though studies have compared utilitarian and recreational walking, to our knowledge, no interventions have used these strategies to target both active and public transportation among older