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Lijuan Wang, Jing Qi and Lin Wang

This study examined the behavioral beliefs of physical education (PE) teachers about teaching students with disabilities in their general PE (GPE) classes and to identify the factors that contribute to their beliefs. A total of 195 PE teachers from a region in eastern China were surveyed. Results of the Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities-III survey indicate that although some teachers felt that including students with disabilities in GPE classes provides benefit for them, they were concerned about the practical difficulties of teaching students with disabilities in GPE classes, the lack of support, and the possible rejection of students with disabilities by their peers. Moreover, the behavioral beliefs of teachers vary according to the disability conditions of the students. Results show that there is no significant effect of demographic factors on the beliefs of PE teachers. Quality of experience predicts positive beliefs. The study has important implication for teacher training, provision of equipment, and support from teacher assistants.

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Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis and Martin S. Hagger

Two persuasive communications were developed to assess the utility of an intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in promoting physical activity attitudes, intentions, and behavior. One persuasive communication targeted modal salient behavioral beliefs (salient belief condition) while the other persuasive communication targeted nonsalient behavioral beliefs (nonsalient belief condition). Results of an intervention study conducted on young people (N = 83, mean age 14.60 yrs, SD = .47) indicated that participants who were presented with the persuasive message targeting modal salient behavioral beliefs reported more positive attitudes (p < .05) and stronger intentions (p = .059) than those presented with the message targeting nonsalient behavioral beliefs. However, neither communication influenced physical activity participation (p > .05). Path analysis also indicated that the effects of the persuasive communication on intentions were mediated by attitudes and not by perceived behavioral control or subjective norms.

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Ryan E. Rhodes, Chris M. Blanchard and Rachel E. Blacklock

Age and gender are consistently related to physical activity (PA), yet theoretical explanation for these associations is scant. The present study compared the mean values and correlations of a population sample, divided by gender and age group, with respect to theory of planned behavior beliefs (behavioral, normative, and control) and PA. Participants were a sample (N = 6,739) of adults (M age = 49.65, SD = 16.04) who completed measures of social and health demographics, theory of planned behavior beliefs, and self-reported PA. Mean analyses identi-fed greater perceived control over PA for seniors than for young and middle-aged adults (η2 > .025). Belief–behavior correlations, however, were not different across age and gender in 24 of 26 tests (q < .19). Thus, PA beliefs are invariant across age and gender with the exception of mean levels of perceived control, which are lower among younger adults than older adults. Factors such as early parenthood and career demands were considered the likely reasons for differences. Overall, the evidence suggests that adapting theoretical models for specific age groups or based on gender may not be necessary.

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Melissa Bopp, Cheryl Der Ananian and Matthew E. Campbell

The demonstrated health benefits of active commuting (AC) and low participation rates among older adults indicate a need to examine the socioecological correlates of AC by age category. An online survey of employed U.S. adults examined AC participation and individual, employment-related, community, and environmental variables. Participants were dichotomized by age (younger: 18–49 yr; n = 638, 64% and older: ≥50 yr; n = 359, 36%). Logistic-regression analyses examined differences in AC correlates by age. Older adults were less likely to be active commuters (13.4%) than younger adults (27.9%; p < .001) For older adults, analyses yielded a Nagelkerke R2 = .76, with perceived behavioral control, behavioral beliefs, household cars, and walking distance as predictors. Analyses for younger adults resulted in a Nagelkerke R2 = .79, with perceived behavioral control, coworker normative beliefs, parking problems at work, greater employer and community support for AC, and bad weather as predictors. Findings suggest age should be considered when examining and targeting AC behaviors.

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Iva Obrusnikova, Martin Block and Suzanna Dillon

Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) was used to elicit salient behavioral, normative, and control beliefs of children without disabilities toward playing with a hypothetical peer with a disability in general physical education. Participants were 350 elementary and middle school students who completed two questionnaires. Questionnaires were assessed for content validity. Participants provided more affective (68%) than instrumental (32%) responses for favorable behavioral beliefs and more instrumental (76%) than affective (24%) responses for unfavorable beliefs. Peer social pressure was prevalent in favorable (69%) and unfavorable (99%) responses. Social pressure significantly varied across five grades, χ2(4, N = 448) = 40.51, p < .01. Participants responded many factors in the class would positively (76%) or negatively (89%) influence the behavior.

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Martin Kudláèek, Hana Válková, Claudine Sherrill, Bettye Myers and Ron French

The purpose was to provide validity evidence for an attitude survey that will predict the intention of Czech prospective teachers to include students with physical disabilities in general physical education (GPE). Based on the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2000), the Czech Attitude Toward Teaching Individuals with Physical Disabilities in Physical Education (ATIPDPE) contained statements of intention and of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. Attitude was inferred from behavioral beliefs. Content validity evidence was established by experts in two countries and by pilot studies utilizing 96 university students to elicit accessible beliefs and intentions. Construct validity evidence was derived from data collected from 145 GPE and 47 adapted PE prospective teachers enrolled in three universities in the Czech Republic. Bivariate correlations, hierarchical regression analysis, and ANOVA examination of known group difference provided good validity evidence for the ATIPDPE. Alpha coefficients ranged from .71 to .94.

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Hayley E. Cutt, Billie Giles-Corti, Matthew W. Knuiman and Terri J. Pikora

Background:

This study aimed to develop a reliable instrument, the Dogs and Physical Activity (DAPA) tool, for measuring important attributes and scales relating to the dog-walking behavior of dog owners.

Methods:

Items measuring dog-specific individual, social environmental, physical environmental, and policy-related factors that affect dog owners’ walking with their dogs were assessed for test–retest reliability. Factor analysis was undertaken to demonstrate that the collection of test items had underlying constructs consistent with the theoretical framework.

Results:

DAPA-tool items had test–retest reliability scores >.7, indicating a high level of stability. Distinct general and dog-specific constructs of subscales measuring dog-supportive features of parks, barriers to dog walking, and behavioral beliefs about the outcomes of regular dog walking were demonstrated through factor analysis.

Conclusions:

The DAPA tool is the first comprehensive, reliable tool for measuring important attributes and scales relating to dog owners’ physical activity and the context-specific factors that affect owners’ walking with their dogs.

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Iva Obrusnikova and Suzanna Rocco Dillon

The study investigated beliefs and physical education goals associated with intentions of students without disabilities to play with a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in general physical education (GPE). The Children’s Intentions to Play with Peers with Disabilities in Middle School Physical Education (CBIPPD-MPE), the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Scale-9, and the Social Goal Scale were administered to a convenience sample of 359 participants. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that social goals and task-involved goals significantly contributed (p < .01) to positive behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. In addition, the three beliefs significantly contributed (p < .01) to participants’ intentions. Females had significantly higher intentions, behavioral beliefs, and social goals, whereas males had significantly higher ego-involved goals (p < .05). The findings offer empirical support for consideration of social and achievement goal theories and gender in the CBIPPD-MPE model.

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Danielle Symons Downs, Courtenay A. Devlin and Ryan E. Rhodes

Background:

Nearly 50% of U.S. women enter pregnancy as overweight or obese (OW/OB). There is a critical need to understand how to motivate OW/OB pregnant women for exercise behavior to improve their health and reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.

Purpose:

To examine salient Theory of Planned Behavior belief predictors of normal weight (NW) and OW/OB pregnant women’s exercise behavior (EXB) across pregnancy.

Methods:

Pregnant women (N = 357) self-reported their exercise beliefs and behavior during each pregnancy trimester. Pearson correlations were used to examine exercise beliefs-behavior associations. Stepwise regressions were used to identify trimester (TRI) 1 and TRI 2 belief predictors of TRI 2 and TRI 3 EXB, respectively, for each weight status group. Belief endorsement was examined to identify critical beliefs.

Results:

TRI 1 EXB beliefs explained 58% of the total variance (22% NW, 36% OW/OB) in TRI 2 EXB. TRI 2 EXB beliefs explained 32% of the total variance (17% NW, 15% OW/OB) in TRI 3 EXB. Individual beliefs varied by weight status and trimester. Control beliefs emerged with the lowest endorsement; making them most critical to target for exercise interventions.

Conclusion:

Prenatal exercise interventions should be weight status specific and target salient beliefs/barriers unique to the pregnancy trimesters.

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Gregory M. Dominick, Ruth Saunders and Kelli Kenison

Background:

An important influence on youth physical activity (PA) is the provision of instrumental social support (ISS) by parents and other adults. Limited research exists about factors that influence parental provision of ISS for youth PA. Following a theory-based conceptual model, a measure for assessing ISS for PA was developed from elicitation survey results. The purpose of this paper is to describe elicitation methodology and ISS instrument development.

Methods:

Parents (N = 37) of children (5–14 years) responded to open-ended questions assessing modal beliefs about their provision of ISS for PA regarding a) positive/negative beliefs, b) normative beliefs, c) self-efficacy (SE), and d) ISS for PA. Data were analyzed qualitatively.

Results:

ISS behaviors reported by parents include enroll/sign-up youth for structured PA, paying expenses for participation in structured/unstructured PA, and providing transportation for unstructured/structured PA. Child health and fitness (benefits), and time/scheduling conflicts (barriers) were most frequently reported behavioral beliefs. Family members were most frequently identified as specific referents for normative beliefs. Final instrument scales yielded moderately high internal consistency reliability scores.

Conclusions:

When developing scales not previously assessed in a population, eliciting modal beliefs about a behavior is an important formative step in instrument development.