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Kerem Shuval, Xia Si, Binh Nguyen and Tammy Leonard

Background:

Behavioral economics studies have found that individuals with more patient time preferences (ie, greater willingness to forgo current costs for future benefits) are more likely to save money. Although research has observed significant relationships between time preferences and health-promoting behaviors, scant evidence exists with physical activity as an outcome.

Methods:

We examined the association between monetary saving behaviors and physical activity among adults of low-income who reside in an urban community. Specifically, we assessed the relationship between saving behaviors (checking/saving account, monthly savings, and planning family finances), and future orientation to physical activity as a dichotomous (meeting guidelines) and continuous (total and domain specific) endpoint.

Results:

In multivariable regression, being future-oriented and having a checking/saving account were related to a 1.3 and 2.1 times higher (respectively) likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines (P < .05). When examining physical activity continuously, all measures were significantly related to leisure-time activity (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Our study findings establish a relationship between future time preferences and increased levels of physical activity among low-income adults. Future research should prospectively explore the efficacy of various schemes that help individuals overcome impatient time preferences to determine a causal relationship.

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Zachary Zenko, Panteleimon Ekkekakis and Dan Ariely

There is a paucity of methods for improving the affective experience of exercise. We tested a novel method based on discoveries about the relation between exercise intensity and pleasure, and lessons from behavioral economics. We examined the effect of reversing the slope of pleasure during exercise from negative to positive on pleasure and enjoyment, remembered pleasure, and forecasted pleasure. Forty-six adults were randomly assigned to a 15-min bout of recumbent cycling of either increasing intensity (0–120% of watts corresponding to the ventilatory threshold) or decreasing intensity (120–0%). Ramping intensity down, thereby eliciting apositive slope of pleasure during exercise, improved postexercise pleasure and enjoyment, remembered pleasure, and forecasted pleasure. The slope of pleasure accounted for 35–46% of the variance in remembered and forecasted pleasure from 15 min to 7 days postexercise. Ramping intensity down makes it possible to combine exposure to vigorous and moderate intensities with a pleasant affective experience.

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Brian M. Mills, Scott Tainsky, B. Christine Green and Becca Leopkey

behaviors has been growing. This is particularly true in the field of economics, where behavioral and experimental economics approaches have become a standard for investigating (ir)rational behavior of individuals in various settings. Behavioral economics as a field addresses deviations from traditional

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Stephanie G. Kerrigan, Evan M. Forman, Mitesh Patel, Dave Williams, Fengqing Zhang, Ross D. Crosby and Meghan L. Butryn

, taking time away from more enjoyed leisure activity) outweigh the benefits of PA. Behavioral economics posits that predictable biases in human thinking influence decision making, such as the overvaluation of short-term outcomes of a behavior (eg, discomfort with activity) compared with the long-term outcomes

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Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

-making process. Therefore, neoclassical approaches such as the expected utility theory are not suitable to explain behavioral outcomes of sponsorship-linked communication. In contrast to neoclassical approaches, behavioral economics takes into account the process of preference building (e.g.,  Kahneman, 2002

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Karen C. Smith, Griffin L. Michl, Jeffrey N. Katz and Elena Losina

gratification . J Behav Dec Making . 2000 ; 13 ( 2 ): 233 – 250 . doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-0771(200004/06)13:2<233::AID-BDM325>3.0.CO;2-U 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0771(200004/06)13:2<233::AID-BDM325>3.0.CO;2-U 37. Rice T . The behavioral economics of health and health care . Annu Rev Public Health . 2013 ; 34

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Nisha Botchwey, Myron F. Floyd, Keshia Pollack Porter, Carmen L. Cutter, Chad Spoon, Tom L. Schmid, Terry L. Conway, J. Aaron Hipp, Anna J. Kim, M. Renee Umstattd Meyer, Amanda L. Walker, Tina J. Kauh and Jim F. Sallis

Heart Association funds only). The topic areas are: • pregnancy and maternal health; • infant, child, and adolescent development; • behavioral economics; • role of health care providers and the health care system; • role of business and industry; • out-of-school time; • transportation, land use, urban

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Jaclyn Megan Sions, Elisa Sarah Arch and John Robert Horne

 al . Physical activity counseling in primary care: insights from public health and behavioral economics . CA Cancer J Clin . 2017 ; 67 : 233 – 244 . PubMed doi:10.3322/caac.21394 10.3322/caac.21394 28198998 6. Luzak A , Heier M , Thorand B , et al . Physical activity levels, duration pattern and

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Gregory Knell, Henry S. Brown, Kelley P. Gabriel, Casey P. Durand, Kerem Shuval, Deborah Salvo and Harold W. Kohl III

and behavioral economics . CA Cancer J Clin . 2017 ; 67 ( 3 ): 233 – 244 . 10.3322/caac.21394 28198998 48. Litman T . Economic value of walking . In: C Mulley , K Gebel , D Ding , eds. Walking . Bingley, UK : Emerald Publishing Limited ; 2017 : 81 – 98 . 10.1108/S2044

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Leighton Jones, Jasmin C. Hutchinson and Elizabeth M. Mullin

are relevant to exercise professionals, as the intensity examined is within the ranges of moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise that are currently part of the physical activity guidelines worldwide. Affect is viewed within behavioral economics as one of the major factors driving human decision