There is strong evidence that older adults greatly benefit from regular physical activity. Yet, older age is consistently associated with lower levels of aerobic physical activity and strength training and higher levels of sedentary behavior, underscoring the need to better understand physical activity behavior in this population. Reviews of interventions to increase physical activity have overall yielded promising results. Interventions based on behavior theory appear to be more effective than non-theory-based interventions, yet strategies from these theories are underutilized in both research and practice. This paper discusses the importance of behavioral interventions, cites findings from the Active for Life initiative to illustrate several key concepts, and provides recommendations to address significant gaps in the literature, including the use of theory, mediation analyses, physical activity maintenance, diversity of participants, and dissemination and translational research.
Angela Papadimitriou and Mark Perry
://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42017068086 . Table 1 Review Protocol Review question What are the effects of cognitive and behavioral interventions on fall-related psychological concerns in older adults? Population Inclusion: • Studies with participants of mean age 65 years or older, with fall-related psychological concerns, such as fear
Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh
compared with healthy peers. 3 Structured exercise or behavioral interventions (either PA alone or PA + dietary behavioral change programs) are effective methods to improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. 4 Although some studies have demonstrated short-term improvements in PA as well, 5 , 6 these
This paper reports a case study of a successful cognitive behavioral intervention using performance profiling. The subject, a top-10 female racket sport player, had a problem with her temperament on court, becoming angry and frustrated in pressure situations. Performance profiling was used for three major purposes: (a) to aid the sport psychologist in identifying an appropriate psychological intervention, (b) to maximize the performer’s self-motivation to partake in and adhere to the intervention, and (c) to monitor any changes during the intervention. A multimodal stress management approach was adopted using a combination of component parts from the available packages. The performance profiling technique showed significant improvements in the performer’s ability to cope with pressure situations 3 and 6 months after the intervention.
L.R. Brawley, P.K. Flora, S.R. Locke and M.S.H. Gierc
In this paper, we argue that the social influence of the group is a supportive medium for older adult thriving. To promote the physical well-being aspect of thriving, we discuss groups as one means of offering social support. We present a specific model of physical activity intervention (i.e., group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention) that uses deliberately-formed interactive groups to help motivate older adults to engage in and sustain physical activity. Our article includes four sections that concern the GMCB intervention model. The first serves as background as to why groups can be powerful behavior change agents and describes the basic model of group motivated intervention. The second section provides a generic description of the intervention structure and how the GMCB intervention is conducted. The third section presents a meta-analytic summary of results of older adult GMCB physical activity interventions across three levels of outcomes: adherence to physical activity, functional and physiological, and social cognitive. The fourth section concludes with commentary about the translational perspective for the GMCB in the future.
Patrick J. Cohn, Robert J. Rotella and John W. Lloyd
The effects of a cognitive-behavioral intervention on adherence to preshot routines of elite collegiate golfers was evaluated using a multiple baseline (across subjects) design. Three male golfers served as subjects for the assessment of percent of mental and behavioral preshot routines completed for nine holes during baseline and treatment conditions. Players’ shots and putts were videotaped and the tapes were scored to determine the percent of behavioral routines completed. Mental routines were assessed after each round via interview format. In addition, the number of strokes, putts, fairways hit from tee, and greens hit in regulation play for nine holes were also counted. The intervention taught each golfer how to consistently align to the target, make a good decision on each shot, and be totally committed to each shot. It was effective in improving players’ adherence to both mental and behavioral preshot routines. Immediate improvements in performance did not occur. Post-treatment interviews showed that the golfers felt the intervention had a positive effect upon performance.
Katie Smith, L. Lanningham-Foster, Amy Welch and Christina Campbell
Innovative methods are warranted to optimize prenatal outcomes. This study’s objective was to determine if a web-based behavioral intervention (BI) can prevent excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) by increasing physical activity (PA).
Participants were randomized to usual care (UC; n = 21) or BI (n = 24) between 10 to 14 weeks gestation. GWG, PA, and diet were assessed at baseline, mid-, and late pregnancy.
No differences in GWG or adherence to GWG recommendations presented between groups. Total UC MET-minutes significantly decreased from baseline to late-pregnancy (1,234 ± 372 MET-minutes, P = .013). Mid-pregnancy sustained PA was greater for BI than UC (20-minute PA bouts: 122 ± 106 vs. 46 ± 48 minutes/week, P = .005; 30-minute PA bouts: 74 ± 70 vs. 14 ± 24 minutes/week, P < .001), and greater for BI at mid-pregnancy compared with baseline (20-minute PA bouts: 61.3 ± 21.9; 30-minute PA bouts: 39.6 ± 14.8, both P < .05). BI energy intake at mid-pregnancy significantly increased from baseline (336 ± 127 kcals, P = .04) and was significantly greater than UC (2,503 ± 703 vs. 1,894 ± 594, P = .005).
Sedentary pregnant women should increase PA but may need additional dietary counseling to prevent excessive GWG.
Leslie W. Podlog, John Heil, Ryan D. Burns, Sean Bergeson, Tom Iriye, Brad Fawver and A. Mark Williams
The authors used a quasi-experimental design to examine the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral-therapy (CBT) intervention for enhancing psychological well-being (positive and negative affect, vitality, self-esteem), rehabilitation adherence, and clinical rehabilitation outcomes (pain, physical function) in 16 NCAA (National Collegiate Athletics Association) Division I athletes experiencing a range of severe injuries. ANCOVAs, with adjusted baseline scores, revealed significant differences between the experimental and control groups for positive affect at rehabilitation midpoint (T2; adjusted mean difference (AMD) = 0.41, p = .04, η2 = .34) and return to play (T3; AMD = 0.67, p < .001, η2 = .70), negative affect at T3 (AMD = −0.81, p = .01, η2 = .47), and vitality at T2 (AMD = 0.99, p = .01, η2 = .48) and T3 (AMD = 1.08, p = .02, η2 = .33). Given decrements in emotional functioning after injury, the data support the use of CBT-based interventions for facilitating the emotional well-being of athletes with severe injuries.
Andrew W. Meyers and Robert Schleser
Evidence indicates that champion and less successful athletes across several sports can be differentiated by the type of cognitive strategies they employ. The cognitive-coping strategies identified in champion athletes were presented to a highly skilled college basketball player. Performance improvements were observed in the athlete's points per game, field goal percentage, field goals made per game, and percentage of total team scoring. Future research in this area was discussed.
Kate Hays, Owen Thomas, Ian Maynard and Joanne Butt
This study examined the applicability of confidence profiling to the development of an individualized intervention designed in accordance with Murphy and Murphy’s (1992) eight step cognitive-behavioral model. The case study design illustrated the potential uses and benefits of confidence profiling when developing an athlete driven intervention to enhance the sport confidence of a female swimmer. Specifically, it showed how confidence profiling can act as an applied measure to accurately assess sport confidence from the athlete’s own perspective, provide the basis of an intervention targeted toward the athlete’s individual confidence needs, and provide feedback to the sport psychologist concerning the effectiveness of the intervention. A postintervention interview with the athlete highlighted the usefulness of the confidence profiling process. Specifically, the profiling process helped to raise the athlete’s awareness of the factors that facilitated and debilitated her sport confidence. Furthermore, the athlete reported feeling more confident and very satisfied with the mental skills training, which she perceived resulted in performance gains.