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Vaithehy Shanmugam, Sophia Jowett and Caroline Meyer

The purpose of this study was twofold: to explore the utility of components related to the transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral model of eating disorders within an athletic population and to investigate the extent to which the model can be applied across gender, sport type, and performance standard to explain eating psychopathology. Five hundred and eighty-eight (N = 588) male and female British athletes completed a battery of self-report instruments related to eating psychopathology, interpersonal diffculties, perfectionism, self-esteem, and mood. Structural equation modeling revealed that eating psychopathology may arise from an interaction of interpersonal diffculties, low self-esteem, high levels of self-critical perfectionism, and depressive symptoms. Analysis further highlighted that the manner in which eating psychopathology may arise is invariant across athletes’ sport type and performance standard, but not across gender. The current findings suggest that the tested components of the transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral model are pertinent and useful in explaining eating psychopathology among athletes.

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Reginald T.A. Ocansey

Research in teacher education clearly indicates that student teachers are receiving feedback from supervisors that is vague and incomplete. For feedback provided during conferences to be effective, it must be specifically communicated so that student teachers can be held accountable for their performances. This study was designed to train cooperating teachers in a behavioral model of supervision (BMS-PE), which emphasizes communicating feedback with more details and holding student teachers accountable for their performances during postteaching conferences. The results of the investigation clearly indicated that the BMS-PE facilitated effective postteaching conferences. The implementation of the BMS-PE is associated with an increase in participants’ time spent in microincident and planning incident categories, a decrease in participants’ time spent in unrelated incident and macroincident categories, an increase in the communication of fully explicit tasks and type-3 accountability statements, and a decrease in the communication of implicit tasks and type-1 accountability statements.

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Galen A. Yordy and Robert W. Lent

This study explored the utility of reasoned action, planned behavior, and social cognitive models in explaining aerobic exercise intentions and behavior. Two hundred eighty-four college students completed measures of each model's central predictor variables, as well as indices of prior exercise frequency and future exercise intentions and behavior. Findings indicate that the reasoned action and social cognitive models are each significantly predictive of future exercise intention and behavior. The planned behavior model did not improve over the theory of reasoned action in predictive analyses. The effects of prior exercise activity on future exercise behavior are also partially mediated by variables from the reasoned action and social cognitive models. Implications for further research on theories of exercise behavior are discussed.

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Megan S. Patterson, M. Renée Umstattd Meyer and Jill M. Beville

Background:

Due to numerous health benefits, national recommendations call Americans to participate in muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days/week. However, college-aged women tend to fall short of recommendations. This study sought to examine correlates of college women meeting strength training recommendations using the Integrated Behavioral Model (IBM).

Methods:

Undergraduate women (n = 421) completed surveys measuring strength training, demographics, and IBM constructs. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using SPSS 19.

Results:

Respondents were on average 20.1 years old, 79.3% were white, and 66.3% did not meet strength training recommendations. Bivariate correlations revealed significant relationships (P ≤ .01) between strength training and attitude, descriptive norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A logistic regression model revealed self-efficacy, intention, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were predictive of college women meeting U.S. strength training recommendations.

Conclusions:

This study supports using the IBM to understand strength training behavior among college women. Further research is needed to better understand mediating effects among IBM constructs.

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Liam A. Slack, Ian W. Maynard, Joanne Butt and Peter Olusoga

The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a Mental Toughness Education and Training Program (MTETP) in elite football officiating. The MTETP consisted of four individual and two group-based workshops designed to develop mental toughness (MT) and enhance performance in three English Football League (EFL) referees. Adopting a single-subject, multiple-baseline-across-participants design, MT and referee-assessor reports were evaluated. Self and coach-ratings of MT highlighted an instant and continued improvement in all three referees during the intervention phases. Performance reports of all referees improved throughout the intervention phases compared with the baseline phase. Social validation data indicated that an array of strategies within the MTETP facilitated MT development. Discussions acknowledge theoretical and practical implications relating to the continued progression of MT interventions in elite sport.

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Shamly Austin, Haiyan Qu and Richard M. Shewchuk

Objective:

To examine whether age bias exists in physicians’ recommendations for physical activity among individuals with arthritis.

Methods:

A cross-sectional sample with 33,071 U.S. adults, 45 years or older with physician-diagnosed arthritis was obtained from 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey. We used logistic regression to examine physicians’ recommendations for physical activity as a function of age controlling for gender, race, education, marital status, employment, income, health insurance, personal physician, emotional support, body mass index, activity limitations, health status, and comorbidities.

Results:

Majority of individuals were females (65%), White (85%), had annual household income < $50,000 (67%), and with comorbidities (86%). Respondents were approximately equal across age groups: middle-aged group (53%) and older group (47%). About 36% were obese and 44% had activity limitations, and 44% did not receive any physicians’ recommendations for physical activity. Results from logistic regression indicated older adults (≥ 65 years old) were less likely (OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82−0.92) to receive physicians’ recommendations for physical activity compared with the middle-aged group (45−64 years old).

Conclusions:

This study indicates that although the benefits associated with the physical activity is well recognized, there is age bias in physicians’ recommendations for physical activity.

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T. Nicole Kirk and Justin A. Haegele

belief-related variables that can strengthen or weaken intention: (a) subjective normative beliefs, (b) attitude toward a behavior, and (c) perceived behavioral control ( Ajzen, 1985 , 1988 , 1991 , 2002 ) (see Figure  1 ). Figure 1 —The theory of planned behavior model. Adapted from Ajzen ( 1985

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Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton and Ben Jones

the wheel incorporates a model of behavior known as the capability, opportunity, motivation, and behavior model (COM-B; Michie et al., 2011 ), which identifies the sources of behavior that are important for intervention. It states that an individual requires capability, opportunity, and motivation to

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Den-Ching A. Lee, Lesley Day, Caroline F. Finch, Keith Hill, Lindy Clemson, Fiona McDermott and Terry P. Haines

This paper examines whether involvement in an observational study may prompt participants to change their exercise behaviors. Data were collected from 394 older community dwellers in Victoria, Australia using a baseline survey, and 245 of these participated in a follow-up survey one year later. Survey domains were drawn from constructs of relevant health behavior models. Results showed that the proportion of respondents who were currently participating in exercises to prevent falls at follow-up was 12% higher than at baseline (Wilcoxon p value < .001). Twenty-nine percent reported they had changed their perceptions about falls and their risk of falls, with comments focused on threat appraisal. Forty-four percent reported having taken strategies to reduce their risk of falling, with comments based on implementation of different preventive strategies. Respondents who held favorable views toward exercises for the prevention of falls appear to change their behaviors that might address falls when participating in observational studies.

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Yannis Theodorakis, Konstantinos Bagiatis and Marios Goudas

The aim of this study was to examine attitudes and intentions of physical education students toward teaching individuals with disabilities. The planned behavior model and two exogenous variables (attitude strength and role identity) were used to examine antecedents of students’ intentions for teaching individuals with disabilities in the future. The sample consisted of 99 university students taking adapted physical education courses. Structural equation modeling analysis showed that the role identity and attitude strength variables mediated the effects of subjective norms and attitudes toward behavior on intention. Also, perceived behavioral control was not a direct determinant of intention but affected the attitude strength variable. Findings are discussed in terms of theoretical as well as practical implications for understanding attitude-behavior relationships in physical education for special populations. It seems that professionals’ intentions to work with individuals with disabilities are formed as part of their role identity in the society and are affected by professionals’ attitude confidence toward teaching individuals with disabilities.