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M. Elaine Cress, David M. Buchner, Thomas Prohaska, James Rimmer, Marybeth Brown, Carol Macera, Loretta DiPietro, and Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko

Physical activity offers one of the greatest opportunities for people to extend years of active independent life and reduce functional limitations. The article identifies key practices for promoting physical activity in older adults, with a focus on those with chronic disease or low fitness and those with low levels of physical activity. Key practices identified: (a) A multidimensional activity program that includes endurance, strength, balance, and flexibility training is optimal for health and functional benefits; (b) principles of behavior change including social support, self-efficacy, active choices, health contracts, assurances of safety, and positive reinforcement enhance adherence; (c) manage risk by beginning at low intensity but gradually increasing to moderate physical activity, which has a better risk:benefit ratio and should be the goal for older adults; (d) an emergency procedure plan is prudent for community-based programs; and (e) monitoring aerobic intensity is important for progression and motivation. Selected content review of physical activity programming from major organizations and institutions is provided.

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Nina R. Sperber, Kelli D. Allen, Brenda M. DeVellis, Robert F. DeVellis, Megan A. Lewis, and Leigh F. Callahan

Objective:

The authors explored whether demographic and psychosocial variables predicted differences in physical activity for participants with arthritis in a trial of Active Living Every Day (ALED).

Method:

Participants (N = 280) from 17 community sites were randomized into ALED or usual care. The authors assessed participant demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, pain, fatigue, and depressive symptoms at baseline and physical activity frequency at 20-wk follow-up. They conducted linear regression with interaction terms (Baseline Characteristic × Randomization Group).

Results:

Being female (p ≤ .05), less depressed (p ≤ .05), or younger (p ≤ .10) was associated with more frequent posttest physical activity for ALED participants than for those with usual care. Higher education was associated with more physical activity for both ALED and usual-care groups.

Discussion:

ALED was particularly effective for female, younger, and less depressed participants. Further research should determine whether modifications could produce better outcomes in other subgroups.

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Bradley J. Cardinal, Eugene A. Park, MooSong Kim, and Marita K. Cardinal

Background:

This study provides an update on the amount and type of physical activity education occurring in medical education in the United States in 2013. It is the first study to do so since 2002.

Methods:

Applying content analysis methodology, we reviewed all accessible accredited doctor of medicine and doctor of osteopathic medicine institutions’ websites for physical activity education related coursework (N = 118 fully accessible; 69.41%).

Results:

The majority of institutions did not offer any physical activity education–related courses. When offered, they were rarely required. Courses addressing sports medicine and exercise physiology were offered more than courses in other content domains. Most courses were taught using a clinical approach. No differences were observed between MD and DO institutions, or between private and public institutions.

Conclusions:

More than one-half of the physicians trained in the United States in 2013 received no formal education in physical activity and may, therefore, be ill-prepared to assist their patients in a manner consistent with Healthy People 2020, the National Physical Activity Plan, or the Exercise is Medicine initiative. The Bipartisan Policy Center, American College of Sports Medicine, and the Alliance for a Healthier Generation called for a reversal of this situation on June 23, 2014.

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Erik J. Groessl, Robert M. Kaplan, Steven N. Blair, W. Jack Rejeski, Jeffrey A. Katula, Abby C. King, Roger A. Fielding, Nancy W. Glynn, and Marco Pahor

We examined the costs of a physical activity (PA) and an educational comparison intervention. 424 older adults at risk for mobility disability were randomly assigned to either condition. The PA program consisted of center-based exercise sessions 3× weekly for 8 weeks, 2× weekly for weeks 9 to 24 and weekly behavioral counseling for 10 weeks. Optional sessions were offered during maintenance weeks (25−52). The comparison intervention consisted of weekly education meetings for 24 weeks, and then monthly for 6 months. Cost analyses were conducted from the “payer’s” perspective, with a 1-year time horizon. Intervention costs were estimated by tracking personnel activities and materials used for each intervention and multiplying by national unit cost averages. The average cost/participant was $1134 and $175 for the PA and the comparison interventions, respectively. A preliminary cost/effectiveness analysis gauged the cost/disability avoided to be $28,206. Costs for this PA program for older adults are comparable to those of other PA interventions. The results are preliminary and a longer study is required to fully assess the costs and health benefits of these interventions.

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Kim Gammage, Jeff Caron, Alyson Crozier, Alison Ede, Christopher Hill, Sean Locke, Desi McEwan, Kathleen Mellano, Eva Pila, Matthew Stork, and Svenja Wolf

://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/psp Author website: https://psychology.cornell.edu/thomas-d-gilovich Adding Behavioral Counseling to Physical Activity Warrants Further Investigation Prostate cancer treatment has become so effective that 5-year survivorship is nearly 100%. There is a growing number of survivors, and there is a need to aid

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Jill R. Reed, Paul Estabrooks, Bunny Pozehl, Kate Heelan, and Christopher Wichman

Form (Google, Mountain View, CA) at 3 separate times (at monthly intervals). An e-mail was sent to the subjects to remind them to fill out the action plan. PA behavioral counseling embedded in the 5A’s model was the basis for the action plan (Table  1 ). Through the action plan, subjects set their PA

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Marjan Mosalman Haghighi, Yorgi Mavros, and Maria A. Fiatarone Singh

trials used behavioral counseling to implement the behavioral intervention ( Supplementary Table 4 [available online]). Among these 18 trials, 12 utilized a behavioral program to increase aerobic exercise, such as increasing walking or steps, or setting a goal of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity PA per

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Xinling Xu, Orgul D. Ozturk, Margaret A. Turk, and Suzanne W. McDermott

.pdf . Accessed April 28, 2017. 26. United States Preventive Services Task Force . Healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: behavior counseling, clinical summary . 2017 . https

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Pilar Lavielle Sotomayor, Gerardo Huitron Bravo, Analí López Fernández, and Juan Talavera Piña

study . BMC Fam Pract . 2013 ; 14 : 128 . PubMed ID: 23987804 doi:10.1186/1471-2296-14-128 10.1186/1471-2296-14-128 23987804 31. Whitlock EP , Orleans CT , Pender N , Allan J . Evaluating primary care behavioral counseling interventions: an evidence-based approach . Am J Prev Med . 2002

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John D. Omura, Eric T. Hyde, Giuseppina Imperatore, Fleetwood Loustalot, Louise Murphy, Mary Puckett, Kathleen B. Watson, and Susan A. Carlson

overweight or have obesity, and who have known cardiovascular risk factors (including diabetes and hypertension), to behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthful diet and physical activity, as recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. 29 Lifestyle modification is also an integral