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Youth Development: An Approach for Physical Activity Behavioral Science

David A. Dzewaltowski and Richard R. Rosenkranz

Positive youth development (PYD) is an emerging area of study and practice that targets fostering the assets of young people to avoid problem behaviors and excel in meeting diverse life challenges. This paper describes how PYD evolved from treating problem behaviors to preventing problem behaviors in at-risk youth, to more recently helping all youth thrive and excel in numerous domains. Although evidence to inform community policy and practice has emerged, there is a lack of consensus on how to define PYD, and this lack of consensus has impacted progress in PYD physical activity behavioral science. This paper recommends PYD physical activity behavioral science reject disciplinary boundaries and (a) examine the nature of person-environment interaction in the context of physical activity as the primary outcome, (b) target big-picture physical activity outcome questions, and (c) come to a consensus on the domains of physical activity behavioral science research competencies.

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Raising the Consciousness of Researchers: Hidden Assumptions in the Behavioral Sciences

Brent D. Slife

Behavioral science researchers have long acknowledged that their methods have certain technical limits: measurement errors, design restrictions, problems of inference, and other factors. Within these limits, however, many researchers have assumed that their methods provide truthful, accurate, or objective renderings of their subject matter. The problem is that the philosophical limitations of method qua method are often overlooked. Method is not a neutral tool of inquiry but a biased metatheory about how to adjudicate theories and findings. This bias is most evident in the modernist foundations for traditional science. Three modernist assumptions are described as integral to the philosophy and practice of traditional behavioral science: universalism, materialism, and atomism. For purposes of contrast and to facilitate conversation about these assumptions, three postmodern assumptions are also described: contextuality, lived experience, and radical holism. Neither set of assumptions is advocated. Rather, an evaluation of any method and its philosophy is advocated in light of the questions being asked and subject matter being investigated.

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Kansas State University Physical Activity Systems Framework: Integration of the Discipline of Kinesiology and Public Health

David A. Dzewaltowski, Mary McElroy, Timothy I. Musch, David C. Poole, and Craig A. Harms

Kinesiology is an academic discipline with a body of content that can be drawn on to support professions and to solve important public health problems. The Kansas State Physical Activity Systems Framework defines a new approach to structure the discipline. Central to the framework is the rejection of a kinesiology subdisciplinary approach and the adoption of an integrated “cell-to-society” systems approach. Each level of physical activity systems is addressed in undergraduate and graduate education and research. Supporting the framework are two research and education teams: exercise physiology and exercise behavioral science. These teams provide core integrated academic discipline content expertise and expertise for integrating professional application areas, such as public health. The framework has evolved over 20 years at Kansas State University, where today the Department of Kinesiology delivers high-quality extramurally-funded research; BS, MS, MPH, and PhD programs; and outreach in a cost-effective manner.

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Environmental and Behavioral Influences of Physical Activity in Junior High School Students

Kent A. Lorenz, Hans van der Mars, Pamela Hodges Kulinna, Barbara E. Ainsworth, and Melbourne F. Hovell

: brief review and guidelines . Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2014 ; 24 ( 3–4 ): 445 – 463 . PubMed doi:10.1080/09602011.2013.815636 23883189 10.1080/09602011.2013.815636 26. Cohen J . Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences . 2nd ed . Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates ; 1988

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Pain Acceptance Among Retired National Football League Athletes: Implications for Clinical Intervention

Zachary L. Mannes, Erin G. Ferguson, Nicole Ennis, Deborah S. Hasin, and Linda B. Cottler

nonconcurrent matched comparison group . Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 13, 17 – 26 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.06.003 Bevers , K. , Watts , L. , Kishino , N.D. , & Gatchel , R.J. ( 2016 ). The biopsychosocial model of the assessment, prevention, and treatment of chronic pain

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Exploring the Daily Hassles of Neophyte Cycling Coaches

Samuel Wood, David Richardson, Simon J. Roberts, and David Fletcher

and Behavioral Sciences at Bangor University. His research explores environmental, organizational, leadership, and cultural themes around management, development, and welfare of elite athletes. His research tends to be qualitative in nature and represented through traditional qualitative analysis as

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“Nice Shot”

Hubert E. Armstrong

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Sport Mediatization, Connected Fans, and Playfulness: An Introduction to Parasocial Pretend Play

Jeffrey W. Kassing

In consideration of sport mediatization, mobile media, and fandom, this work introduces and outlines the phenomenon of parasocial pretend play. This is achieved by examining the popular television show Ted Lasso, which chronicles the activities surrounding fictional English football club AFC Richmond. Viewer involvement with the show, parasocial interaction with its characters, and social media use by connected fans combine to facilitate this new opportunity for playful collective engagement. By connecting concepts from parasocial interaction and play, the assessment theorizes about and documents how parasocial pretend play transpires. It also identifies factors that may disrupt parasocial pretend play, discusses the potential for its misuse, and details apparent variations of the practice.

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Impact of Walking School Bus Programs on Self-Efficacy and Outcome Expectations

Nicole Cramer, Miriam J. Haviland, Chuan Zhou, and Jason A. Mendoza

Background: A walking school bus (WSB) consists of students and adults walking to and from school and promotes active commuting to school. Self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectations (OE) are behavioral constructs associated with active commuting to school. The authors sought to assess the impact of a WSB program on child SE, and parent SE, and OE. Methods: The authors conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of a WSB intervention from 2012 to 2016 among 22 elementary schools serving racially diverse, low-income populations in Houston, TX and Seattle, WA. Surveys collected data from third- to fifth-grade students and their parents, (n = 418) child-parent dyads, before school randomization and at the school year’s end. Child surveys included 16 SE items, while parent surveys included 15 SE items and 14 OE items. Scores were averaged from responses ranging from 1 to 3. The authors compared changes in SE and OE between groups over time and accounted for clustering using linear mixed-effects models. Results: The intervention group had increases in child SE of 0.12 points (P = .03), parent SE of 0.11 points (P = .048), and parent OE of 0.09 points (P = .02) compared to controls over time. Conclusions: As hypothesized, the WSB improved child SE, parent SE, and parent OE related to active commuting to school.

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Sport Psychology Consultants’ Views on Working With Perfectionistic Elite Athletes

Ellinor Klockare, Luke F. Olsson, Henrik Gustafsson, Carolina Lundqvist, and Andrew P. Hill

perfectionism . Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 13, 7 – 16 . https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcbs.2019.06.005 Ong , C.W. , Lee , E.B. , Krafft , J. , Terry , C.L. , Barrett , T.S. , Levin , M.E. , & Twohig , M.P. ( 2019 ). A randomized controlled trial of acceptance and commitment