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Richard Lowry, Sarah M. Lee, Janet E. Fulton and Laura Kann


To help inform policies and programs, a need exists to understand the extent to which Healthy People 2010 objectives for physical activity, physical education (PE), and television (TV) viewing among adolescents are being achieved.


As part of the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, 5 national school-based surveys were conducted biennially from 1999 through 2007. Each survey used a 3-stage cross-sectional sample of students in grades 9 to 12 and provided self-reported data from approximately 14,000 students. Logistic regression models that controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade were used to analyze secular trends.


During 1999 to 2007, prevalence estimates for regular participation in moderate and vigorous physical activity, participation in daily PE classes, and being physically active in PE classes did not change significantly among female, male, white, black, or Hispanic students. In contrast, the prevalence of TV viewing for 2 or fewer hours on a school day increased significantly among female, male, white, black, and Hispanic students and among students in every grade except 12th grade.


Among US adolescents, no significant progress has been made toward increasing participation in physical activity or school PE classes; however, improvements have been made in reducing TV viewing time.

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Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Paula J. Ziegler and Judy A. Nelson

The objectives of this study were to determine food preferences, body image perceptions, dieting behaviors, and nutrient intakes of elite male and female figure skaters. Male (n = 23) and female (n = 26) figure skaters completed a food preference checklist, a questionnaire examining their demographics, dieting behaviors and body image perceptions, and 3-d food records. Male skaters had a higher preference (score ≥ 6) for grains, fruit, meat, dairy, fats, and sweets. Female skaters had higher preference for grains and fruits. Of the female skaters, 30% considered themselves overweight and indicated a preference for a thinner body contour. Both male and female skaters expressed a preference for leaner body contours for members of the opposite gender. Total energy intake, total fat (females) and dietary fiber were below the dietary recommendations. Vitamin E, vitamin D, folate (females), pantothenic acid (females), calcium (females), magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus (females) were less than two-thirds of the dietary recommendations. Macronutrient intake of male skaters was associated with preferences for the grain group, although no association was observed among female skaters. Results suggest that these behaviors and attitudes need to be assessed and addressed among figure skaters, given their impact on dietary intakes and overall well-being.

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Ines Pfeffer and Tilo Strobach

Most of the theoretical models used to explain health behavior, such as the theory of planned behavior ( Ajzen, 1991 ) or the social cognitive theory ( Bandura, 1991 ), assume that intention (i.e., motivation for a specific behavior) is the proximal predictor of behavior ( Rhodes & Dickau, 2013

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Robert W. Motl and Rachel Bollaert

, McAuley, & Snook, 2005 )—this degree of physical inactivity has not changed over the past 25 years ( Kinnett-Hopkins, Adamson, Rougeau, & Motl, 2017a ). Such observations have motivated the development of prescriptive guidelines ( Latimer-Cheung et al., 2013 ) and behavioral interventions ( Motl, 2014

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Fabiana Medeiros de Almeida Silva and Aldemir Smith Menezes

Sedentary behavior is the term used to describe activities with energy expenditure close to resting values (1.0–1.5 metabolic equivalent units). Accordingly, activities that are usually performed in a sitting position, such as watching television, using the computer, playing video games, and

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Heontae Kim and Minsoo Kang

Sedentary behavior, defined as “any waking behavior characterized by energy expenditure ≤ 1.5 METs while in a sitting or reclining posture,” 1 is a risk factor for chronic diseases such as metabolic syndrome, 2 , 3 cardiovascular disease, 4 – 7 type 2 diabetes, 8 , 9 hypertension, 10 and

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Eleanor Quested, Nikos Ntoumanis, Andreas Stenling, Cecilie Thogersen-Ntoumani and Jennie E. Hancox

). Although many adults initiate a fitness regime more than once in their life, few sustain this behavior consistently or for the long term; about 50% drop out within the first 6 months ( Marcus et al., 2006 ). Numerous studies have highlighted the important role of the motivational environment created by the

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Paddy C. Dempsey, Chuck E. Matthews, S. Ghazaleh Dashti, Aiden R. Doherty, Audrey Bergouignan, Eline H. van Roekel, David W. Dunstan, Nicholas J. Wareham, Thomas E. Yates, Katrien Wijndaele and Brigid M. Lynch

Sedentary behaviors—seated or reclining postures done while awake and that require little energy expenditure (ie, ≤1.5 metabolic equivalents 1 )—are ubiquitous in modern societies. Accelerometer-based estimates indicate that adults in high-income countries spend on average 8 to 10 hours per day

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Dylan O. Blain, Thomas Curran and Martyn Standage

adolescents (e.g.,  Society of Health and Physical Educators America, 2013 ; United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2015 ). Yet, despite advancements in measurement, it is surprising that very few studies have investigated the health-related behavioral and psychosocial outcomes of

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Samuel T. Forlenza, Scott Pierce, Robin S. Vealey and John Mackersie

regarding which actions are most effective do not always align ( Vargas-Tonsing, Myers, & Feltz, 2004 ). This is crucial as coaches may think their behaviors and words are helping athletes become more confident, but are having no effect because of how athletes are interpreting those actions. The purpose of