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Andrew P. Driska

on coaches’ knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours. Methods Overview of Evaluation Phases The evaluation was broken into four phases: (1)  program description , including initial information gathering and determination of key program decision-makers; (2)  program elicitation , to elicit a theory

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David Markland and Vannessa Tobin

Drawing on self-determination theory, Mullan, Markland, and Ingledew (1997) developed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ) to measure the continuum of behavioral regulation in exercise contexts. The BREQ assesses external, identified, introjected, and intrinsic regulations. Mullan et al. initially included a set of amotivation items but dropped these due to high levels of skewness and a restricted response range in their development sample. It would clearly be useful to assess amotivation for exercise. This study aimed to test the factorial validity of a modified BREQ with amotivation items reinstated in a sample likely to exhibit a wider range of amotivation responses. A total of 194 former exercise referral scheme participants completed the revised instrument (BREQ-2). Although the amotivation items were still skewed, confirmatory factor analysis using the Satorra-Bentler (1994) scaling correction to χ2 indicated an excellent model ft. The BREQ-2 could prove useful to researchers wishing to assess amotivation in order to develop a more complete understanding of motivation for exercise.

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Brigid M. Lynch, Charles E. Matthews, Katrien Wijndaele and on behalf of the Sedentary Behaviour Council of the International Society for Physical Activity and Health

MEDLINE searches at various levels of specificity. Systematic reviews that utilize MEDLINE rely heavily on the database’s controlled vocabulary to identify relevant publications. One of the first projects initiated by the Sedentary Behaviour Council of the International Society for Physical Activity and

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Katherine L. Downing, Trina Hinkley and Kylie D. Hesketh

Background:

There is little current understanding of the influences on sedentary behavior and screen time in preschool children. This study investigated socioeconomic position (SEP) and parental rules as potential correlates of preschool children’s sedentary behavior and screen time.

Methods:

Data from the Healthy Active Preschool Years (HAPPY) Study were used. Participating parents reported their child’s usual weekly screen time and their rules to regulate their child’s screen time. Children wore accelerometers for 8 days to objectively measure sedentary time.

Results:

Children whose parents limited television viewing spent significantly less time in that behavior and in total screen time; however, overall sedentary behavior was unaffected. An association between parents limiting computer/electronic game use and time spent on the computer was found for girls only. SEP was inversely associated with girls’, but not boys’, total screen time and television viewing.

Conclusions:

As parental rules were generally associated with lower levels of screen time, intervention strategies could potentially encourage parents to set limits on, and switch off, screen devices. Intervention strategies should target preschool children across all SEP areas, as there was no difference by SEP in overall sedentary behavior or screen time for boys.

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Leon Straker, Erin Kaye Howie, Dylan Paul Cliff, Melanie T. Davern, Lina Engelen, Sjaan R. Gomersall, Jenny Ziviani, Natasha K. Schranz, Tim Olds and Grant Ryan Tomkinson

Background:

Australia has joined a growing number of nations that have evaluated the physical activity and sedentary behavior status of their children. Australia received a “D minus” in the first Active Healthy Kids Australia Physical Activity Report Card.

Methods:

An expert subgroup of the Australian Report Card Research Working Group iteratively reviewed available evidence to answer 3 questions: (a) What are the main sedentary behaviors of children? (b) What are the potential mechanisms for sedentary behavior to impact child health and development? and (c) What are the effects of different types of sedentary behaviors on child health and development?

Results:

Neither sedentary time nor screen time is a homogeneous activity likely to result in homogenous effects. There are several mechanisms by which various sedentary behaviors may positively or negatively affect cardiometabolic, neuromusculoskeletal, and psychosocial health, though the strength of evidence varies. National surveillance systems and mechanistic, longitudinal, and experimental studies are needed for Australia and other nations to improve their grade.

Conclusions:

Despite limitations, available evidence is sufficiently convincing that the total exposure and pattern of exposure to sedentary behaviors are critical to the healthy growth, development, and wellbeing of children. Nations therefore need strategies to address these common behaviors.

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Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann and Tanja Legenbauer

considered as high risk groups for the development of disturbed eating behaviours and/or clinical relevant eating disorders (EDs; Sundgot-Borgen et al., 2013 ). Prevalence rates for ED diagnoses in athletes are as high as 30% in aesthetic sports and about 27% in weight related sports compared to 11% in non

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Nessan Costello, Jim McKenna, Louise Sutton, Kevin Deighton and Ben Jones

interventions to be successful within the challenging environment of professional sport ( Coutts 2016 ; Jones et al., 2017a ). The purpose of this case study was to demonstrate how the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW; Michie et al., 2014 ) was used to design and implement a successful nutritional intervention

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Stephen Macdonald and Justine Allen

In sport, many factors need to come together in the life of an aspiring athlete to facilitate successful transition to elite levels of performance ( Côté, Lidor & Hackfort, 2009 ). These factors are wide ranging (e.g., innate, behavioural, psychological, sport culture) ( Coutinho, Mesquita

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington and Anthony Miller

 al., 2014 ). Therefore, demographic factors appear to be important in the study of athlete mental health. However, when viewed through a cognitive-behavioural lens, it is not yet fully understood whether and to what extent cognitive mediators are involved in the transaction between contextual factors and