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Rachel Tinius, Kolbi Edens, Kim Link, M. Susan Jones, Scott Lyons, Tatum Rebelle, Kevin J. Pearson, and Jill Maples

of which have safe and comfortable options for pregnant women). The purpose of this study was to compare PA levels, beliefs, and motivation regarding PA during pregnancy between rural women assigned to an intervention (including evidence-based educational materials and access to local resources) and

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Déirdre Ní Chróinín and Mary O’Sullivan

This longitudinal research explored beginning elementary classroom teachers’ beliefs about learning to teach physical education (PE) across time. Understanding how beliefs shape the process of learning to teach PE can inform the design of more impactful physical education teacher education (PETE). We mapped beliefs over six years including the three years of an undergraduate elementary teacher education program and the first three years teaching in schools through reflective writing tasks and semistructured interviews. Across time these beginning teachers believed that learning to teach PE required active participation in PE content, building of a resource bank of content ideas, and practice of teaching the content. Building competence in PE content through active participation combined with development of more complex understandings of PE content through PETE pedagogies can better support elementary teachers learning to teach PE.

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Leah K. May and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

; Jewett, Bain, & Ennis, 1995 ). Teachers who give priority to the learning process perspective attempt to equip students with the skills they need to learn for themselves. This focus comes from a belief that in a quickly evolving world, what is important subject matter is constantly changing. Physical

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Wendy M. Rodgers, Craig R. Hall, Philip M. Wilson, and Tanya R. Berry

The purpose of this research was to examine whether exercisers and nonexercisers are rated similarly on a variety of characteristics by a sample of randomly selected regular exercisers, nonexercisers who intend to exercise, and nonexercisers with no intention to exercise. Previous research by Martin Ginis et al. (2003) has demonstrated an exerciser stereotype that advantages exercisers. It is unknown, however, the extent to which an exerciser stereotype is shared by nonexercisers, particularly nonintenders. Following an item-generation procedure, a sample of 470 (n = 218 men; n = 252 women) people selected using random digit dialing responded to a questionnaire assessing the extent to which they agreed that exercisers and nonexercisers possessed 24 characteristics, such as “happy,” “fit,” “fat,” and “lazy.” The results strongly support a positive exerciser bias, with exercisers rated more favorably on 22 of the 24 items. The degree of bias was equivalent in all groups of respondents. Examination of the demographic characteristics revealed no differences among the three groups on age, work status, or child-care responsibilities, suggesting that there is a pervasive positive exerciser bias.

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Leah K. May, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith, and Stefanie A. Wind

There is now a considerable body of research supporting the theory that physical education teachers’ beliefs regarding objectives, content, evaluation, and curricula are influenced by one or more of six philosophical perspectives known as value orientations ( Curtner-Smith, Baxter, & May, 2018

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Jennifer Ann McGetrick, Krystyna Kongats, Kim D. Raine, Corinne Voyer, and Candace I.J. Nykiforuk

. Methods The Chronic Disease Prevention Survey The Chronic Disease Prevention Survey was first implemented in 2009 9 , 19 and subsequently in 2010, 2011, 2014, and 2016. 20 The aim of this survey is to understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs around healthy public policy among policy influencers

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington, and Anthony Miller

directly cause psychological distress; rather it is one’s beliefs about the events that lead to emotional and behavioral reactivity. REBT is distinguished from other CBT approaches by placing irrational and rational beliefs at its core. In REBT rational beliefs (flexible, non-extreme, and logical) lead to

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Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis and Martin S. Hagger

Two persuasive communications were developed to assess the utility of an intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in promoting physical activity attitudes, intentions, and behavior. One persuasive communication targeted modal salient behavioral beliefs (salient belief condition) while the other persuasive communication targeted nonsalient behavioral beliefs (nonsalient belief condition). Results of an intervention study conducted on young people (N = 83, mean age 14.60 yrs, SD = .47) indicated that participants who were presented with the persuasive message targeting modal salient behavioral beliefs reported more positive attitudes (p < .05) and stronger intentions (p = .059) than those presented with the message targeting nonsalient behavioral beliefs. However, neither communication influenced physical activity participation (p > .05). Path analysis also indicated that the effects of the persuasive communication on intentions were mediated by attitudes and not by perceived behavioral control or subjective norms.

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Grace Goc Karp and Marianne L. Woods

Examining how preservice teachers (PTs) perceive and implement assessment may provide clues as to how we can refocus the way future teachers use assessment. A conceptual framework addressing PT beliefs and how they change was applied in this study to examine PTs’ (N = 17) beliefs and understanding of the role of assessment and evaluation on student learning and instruction while implementing a high school physical education program. PTs experienced and discussed the role of needs assessment, assessment-focused instruction, and authentic and alternative assessments in relation to student learning and instruction using a teaching for understanding framework (Wiggins, 1998). Data gathered included surveys and interviews documenting PTs’ previously held beliefs and conceptions; current perceptions of the assessment concepts used during the course and in their units; analysis of assessments used in unit plans; and PTs’ perceptions of assessment and student learning during and after the unit taught. PTs planned and implemented alternative/authentic as well as traditional assessments in three out of four units. PTs’ beliefs about student learning and assessment were varied. Despite ultimate lack of teacher authority, PTs felt that doing these assessments affected their beliefs about assessment. Some PTs accommodated new information about authentic assessment and expanded their understanding, whereas other PTs either resisted or assimilated this new knowledge into existing belief structures. The results indicate that shaping critical and authentic assessment experiences in teacher preparation deserves increased attention and deliberate planning throughout PETE programs if shifts in beliefs are to be made.

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Ben D. Kern, Chad M. Killian, Douglas W. Ellison, Kim C. Graber, Elaine Belansky, and Nicholas Cutforth

Teacher change refers to the process by which teachers make changes to their pedagogy in varying contexts ( Guskey, 2014 ), including their use of instructional resources, approach(es) to teaching, and beliefs about teaching and learning ( Fullan, 2007 ). Research indicates that teachers often