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Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

consumers. According to need and activity theories ( Diener et al., 2002 ; Rodriguez, Latkova, & Sun, 2008 ), hedonism is experienced when psychological needs (e.g., belonging, achievement) are fulfilled through interesting and meaningful activities. For sport consumers, sport participation, sport

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Brigid Byrd and Jeffrey J. Martin

The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on climate perceptions of youth participating in a middle school running program. Method: Seventy-four youth from a middle school track and cross country program in the Midwest participated. Results: Based on multiple regression analyses we predicted 52% of the variance in feelings of belonging largely due to perceptions of leadership emotional support and task climate and 25% of the variance in feelings of social responsibility largely due to perceptions of a caring climate. Conclusions: Our findings support the importance of middle school running programs which offered an environment allowing multiple psychosocial benefits, such as nurturing feelings of belonging and social responsibility.

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A. Justine Dowd, Toni Schmader, Benjamin D. Sylvester, Mary E. Jung, Bruno D. Zumbo, Luc J. Martin and Mark R. Beauchamp

The objective of the studies presented in this paper was to examine whether the need to belong can be used to enhance exercise cognitions and behavior. Two studies examined the effectiveness of framing exercise as a means of boosting social skills (versus health benefits) for self-regulatory efficacy, exercise intentions, and (in Study 2) exercise behavior. In Study 1, inactive adults primed to feel a lack of social belonging revealed that this manipulation led to greater self-regulatory efficacy (but not exercise intentions). In Study 2, involving a sample of inactive lonely adults, all participants reported engaging in more exercise; however, those in the social skills condition also reported a greater sense of belonging than those in the health benefits comparison condition. These findings provide an important basis for developing physical activity interventions that might be particularly relevant for people at risk for feeling socially isolated or lonely.

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Jeffrey J. Martin

about quality youth-sport participation for special populations. Who belongs under the umbrella term of special populations appears to vary tremendously depending on the authors doing the writing, making a definition difficult. For instance, in one study the authors considered all of the following as

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Anne Cox and Lavon Williams

Research illustrates the positive roles of perceived competence, autonomy, and mastery climate and the negative role of performance climate in student motivation in physical education. Less research has examined perceptions of relationships within this setting (i.e., perceived teacher support and relatedness) and their role in student motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the mediating roles of perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness in the relationship between social contextual factors and motivation in physical education students (N = 508). Results from structural equation modeling showed that perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness partially mediated the relationship between perceived teacher support and self-determined motivation and that mastery climate related directly to self-determined motivation. The results highlight the importance of perceived teacher support, mastery climate, and relatedness to motivation in physical education.

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Agnes Elling and Inge Claringbould

Inclusionary and exclusionary mechanisms that influence sport participation and positions of leadership in sport form a complex constellation of interacting factors and dimensions. Who can, who is allowed, and who is willing to participate in sport is influenced by institutional selection mechanisms as much as by individual options and choices. Socialization, money and time, accessibility of sporting facilities, normative and discriminating structures and cultures, and sporting abilities and talent are interacting in/exclusionary factors that influence sport participation options among people with different social-status positions (e.g., age, gender, and ethnicity). Changes in the facilitation and organization of sport can enhance a more inclusive sport practice, which might also foster social inclusion in broader society. The focus of this article is on changing and reproducing patterns of social inclusionary and exclusionary mechanisms in (post)modern sport in Western countries like the Netherlands. We present and analyze the current status and development in central theories, governmental policies, and empirical data.

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Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas and Guillaume Martinent

model, general factors of BPNS and BPNT, as well as BPNS and BPNT for competence, autonomy, and relatedness at T1, were incorporated as covariates of the motivational profiles at T1, T2, and T3. Finally, it is noteworthy that for every participant, the likelihood of belonging to each of the motivation

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Heidi A. Wayment, Ann H. Huffman, Monica Lininger and Patrick C. Doyle

Key Points ▸ This study used social network analysis (SNA) to examine relationships between social structure, identity perceptions, and concussion-reporting support in an NCAA Division I football team. ▸ Team belonging was positively correlated with having more friends and being highly connected

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Justin A. Haegele, Samuel R. Hodge, Xihe Zhu, Steven K. Holland and Wesley J. Wilson

peers without disabilities; however, their subjective experiences (those that are unique to each individual and their interpretation of events; Schwandt, 1997 ) of belonging, acceptance, and value inherent to inclusive education experiences 3 ( Stainback & Stainback, 1996 ) may be unavailable. In