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Arlene E. Hall

This study is an examintion of the effects of race and income on leisure-time physical activity among women (n = 116). Perceived benefits of and barriers to participating in leisure-time physical activity were also compared. A regression model utilizing social cognitive variables was used to explore factors which may predict physical activity participation. No significant differences emerged between the groups regarding the amount of physical activity they reported either by race or socioeconomic status. Time expenditure emerged significantly different by race (p < .001) and income (p < .000); middle-income women reported time as a barrier more than lower-income women and Whites were likelier to report time as a barrier more than Blacks. Middle-income women perceived greater (p < .01) physical performance benefits from exercise than lower-income women. Social interaction, time expenditure, and body mass index were the strongest predictors of physical activity. The data and findings could be useful for increaseing our understanding of economic and racial disparities in physical activity participation and garnish information for use in constructing interven programs.

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Martin J. Turner and Alberto P. Avolio

International guidelines suggest limiting sodium intake to 86–100 mmol/day, but average intake exceeds 150 mmol/day. Participants in physical activities are, however, advised to increase sodium intake before, during and after exercise to ensure euhydration, replace sodium lost in sweat, speed rehydration and maintain performance. A similar range of health benefits is attributable to exercise and to reduction in sodium intake, including reductions in blood pressure (BP) and the increase of BP with age, reduced risk of stroke and other cardiovascular diseases, and reduced risk of osteoporosis and dementia. Sweat typically contains 40–60 mmol/L of sodium, leading to approximately 20–90 mmol of sodium lost in one exercise session with sweat rates of 0.5–1.5 L/h. Reductions in sodium intake of 20–90 mmol/day have been associated with substantial health benefits. Homeostatic systems reduce sweat sodium as low as 3–10 mmol/L to prevent excessive sodium loss. “Salty sweaters” may be individuals with high sodium intake who perpetuate their “salty sweat” condition by continual replacement of sodium excreted in sweat. Studies of prolonged high intensity exercise in hot environments suggest that sodium supplementation is not necessary to prevent hyponatremia during exercise lasting up to 6 hr. We examine the novel hypothesis that sodium excreted in sweat during physical activity offsets a significant fraction of excess dietary sodium, and hence may contribute part of the health benefits of exercise. Replacing sodium lost in sweat during exercise may improve physical performance, but may attenuate the long-term health benefits of exercise.

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Elizabeth E. Turner, W. Jack Rejeski and Lawrence R. Brawley

This investigation examined the influence of leadership behavior on exercise- induced feeling states and self-efficacy beliefs following an acute bout of physical activity. Forty-six college-aged women participated in a single session of physical activity that involved either socially enriched or bland social interactions by an activity leader. Participants completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) and self-efficacy measures prior to and 10 min following the experimental treatments. The results revealed that those in the enriched condition reported greater increases in Revitalization. There was a similar trend for the Positive Engagement subscale, and those in the enriched condition reported much larger increases in self-efficacy. There was no evidence that self-efficacy was related to the change seen in EFI responses; however, enjoyment of the instructors’ approach to the class was related to residualized change scores for both Revitalization and Positive Engagement.

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Alice M. Buchanan, Benjamin Miedema and Georgia C. Frey

-011-9916-5 10.1007/s11136-011-9916-5 Sorensen , C. , & Zarrett , N. ( 2014 ). Benefits of physical activity for adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: A comprehensive review . Review Journal of Autism and Developmental  Disorders, 1 ( 4 ), 344 – 353 . doi:10.1007/s40489-014-0027-4 10.1007/s40489

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Pamela K. Samra, Amanda L. Rebar, Lynne Parkinson, Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Stephanie Schoeppe, Deborah Power, Anthony Schneiders, Corneel Vandelanotte and Stephanie Alley

five questions which explored (a) current physical activity participation, (b) perceived benefits of physical activity, (c) barriers to being active, (d) preferences to increase physical activity, and (e) preferred sources of support for being active. Prior to the commencement of the focus groups

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Amanda Sonnega, Amanda Leggett, Renee Pepin and Shervin Assari

reasonably valid information ( Silsbury, Goldsmith, & Rushton, 2015 ). Nonetheless, given the expectancy that people may have about the sleep benefits of physical activity, it may be that those who reported more physical activity were also more likely to report better sleep. Although the HRS is an

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Nathanial J. Kapsal, Theresa Dicke, Alexandre J.S. Morin, Diego Vasconcellos, Christophe Maïano, Jane Lee and Chris Lonsdale

Extensive research has supported the physical and psychosocial health benefits of physical activity among typically developing youth. 1 – 7 Previous systematic reviews have shown that, for typically developing youth, physical activity is associated with higher quality of life, 2 , 6 , 7 lower

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Kenneth E. Powell, Abby C. King, David M. Buchner, Wayne W. Campbell, Loretta DiPietro, Kirk I. Erickson, Charles H. Hillman, John M. Jakicic, Kathleen F. Janz, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William E. Kraus, Richard F. Macko, David X. Marquez, Anne McTiernan, Russell R. Pate, Linda S. Pescatello and Melicia C. Whitt-Glover

Edition, 3 which updates the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. 4 The 2008 PAGAC Scientific Report 5 provided a fundamental starting point for allowing the 2018 Committee to examine more broadly the wide-ranging benefits of physical activity to health, as well as the types, volumes, and

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Noreen L. Goggin and James R. Morrow Jr.

The purpose of this study was to determine older adults’ physical activity behaviors and stage of readiness for physical activity. Data were collected on 403 American adults over the age of 60. Of these participants, 206 were aged 61–70 and 197 were over the age of 70. Participants first provided information regarding their perceptions of the benefits of physical activity. Then questions were asked to determine their stage of readiness for physical activity (i.e., precontemplation, contemplation, etc.). Results indicated that older adults are aware of the health benefits of physical activity (89%), but 69% of them are not participating in sufficient physical activity to obtain such benefits. Physical activity involvement decreases with increased age, and older men tend to be more physically active than older women. Increased knowledge about the benefits of physical activity and one’s stage of readiness for it might help increase the number of older adults who engage in sufficient physical activity.

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A.E. Wall, M. Bouffard, J. McClements, H. Findlay and M.J. Taylor

Our major purpose is to develop a more holistic model of the development of skilled action that can guide our research and practical efforts to help physically awkward persons enjoy the benefits of physical activity. Based on recent research in the areas of cognitive science and cognitive development, we suggest that motor development can be viewed as the acquisition of three major types of knowledge about action: procedural, declarative, and affective. A brief discussion of how each type of knowledge about action might develop is presented. The final section examines the complementary role of knowledge and consciousness in the acquisition of skilled action and the implications of the model for physically awkward children.