Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • "bi-articular muscles" x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Relevance of the Force-Velocity Relationship in the Activation of Mono- and Bi-Articular Muscles in Slow Arm Movements in Humans

Tom G. Welter, Maarten F. Bobbert, Bauke M. van Bolhuis, Stan C.A.M. Gielen, Leonard A. Rozendaal, and Dirkjan H.E.J. Veeger

We have investigated whether differences in EMG activity in mono- and bi-articuiar muscles for concentric and eccentric contractions (van Bolhuis, Gielen, & van Ingen Schenau, 1998) have to be attributed to a specific muscle coordination strategy or whether they are merely a demonstration of adaptations necessary to adjust for muscle contractile properties. Slow, multi-joint arm movements were studied in a horizontal plane with an external force applied at the wrist. Kinematics and electromyography data from 10 subjects were combined with data from a 3-D model of the arm and a Hill-type muscle model Data for both mono- and bi-articular muscles revealed a higher activation in concentric than in eccentric contractions. The model calculations indicated that the measured difference in activation (20%) was much larger than expected based on the force-velocity relationship (predicting changes of ~5%). Although these findings eliminate the force-velocity relationship as the main explanation for changes in EMG, it cannot be ruled out that other muscle contractile properties, such as history dependence of muscle force, determine muscle activation levels in the task that was studied.

Restricted access

Initial Muscle Activity in Planar Ballistic Arm Movements with Varying External Force Directions

Tom G. Welter and Maarten F. Bobbert

We have investigated, in fast movements, the hypothesis that bi-articular muscles are preferentially selected to control me direction of force exerted on the environment, while mono-articular muscles are selected to control both this exerted force direction as well as the movement direction. Fourteen subjects performed ballistic arm movements involving shoulder and elbow rotations in the horizontal plane, either with or without an external force applied at the wrist. Joint torques required to counteract the external force were in the same order of magnitude as those required to overcome the inertial load during movements. EMG was recorded from mono- and bi-articular flexors and extensors of me elbow and shoulder. Signals were rectified and integrated (IREMG) over 100 ms following the first detected activity. MANOVA revealed mat, contrary to the hypothesis, IREMG of bi-articular muscles varied with movement direction just as that of the mono-articular muscles. It was concluded that the present data do not support me hypothesis mentioned above. A second finding was that movement effects on IREMG were much stronger than external force effects. This could not be explained using Hill's force-velocity relationship. It may be an indication that in the initiation of fast movements, IREMG is not only tuned to movement dynamics and muscle contractile properties, but also to me dynamics of the build up of an active state of the muscle.

Restricted access

How Strongly Is Muscle Activity Associated with Joint Moments?

Graham E. Caldwell and Li Li

In this commentary we question whether the relationship between muscle activity and joint moments is the same for natural motor tasks as for controlled experimental situations. An important consideration in this regard is the identification of the correct electromechanical delay (EMD) for comparing EMG and joint moment data. Data from recent cycling studies are used to illustrate the importance of EMD, and how changing task constraints can alter the relation between muscle activity and joint moment balance for bi-articular antagonist pairs.

Restricted access

Lower Extremity Joint Moments during Uphill Cycling

Graham E. Caldwell, James M. Hagberg, Steve D. McCole, and Li Li

Lower extremity joint moments were investigated in three cycling conditions: level seated, uphill seated and uphill standing. Based on a previous study (Caldwell, Li, McCole, & Hagberg, 1998), it was hypothesized that joint moments in the uphill standing condition would be altered in both magnitude and pattern. Eight national caliber cyclists were filmed while riding their own bicycles mounted to a computerized ergometer. Applied forces were measured with an instrumented pedal, and inverse dynamics were used to calculate joint moments. In the uphill seated condition the joint moments were similar in profile to the level seated but with a modest increase in magnitude. In the uphill standing condition the peak ankle plantarflexor moment was much larger and occurred later in the downstroke than in the seated conditions. The extensor knee moment that marked the first portion of the down-stroke for the seated trials was extended much further into the downstroke while standing, and the subsequent knee flexor moment period was of lower magnitude and shorter duration. These moment changes in the standing condition can be explained by a combination of more forward hip and knee positions, increased magnitude of pedal force, and an altered pedal force vector direction. The data support the notion of an altered contribution of both muscular and non-muscular sources to the applied pedal force. Muscle length estimates and muscle activity data from an earlier study (Li & Caldwell, 1996) support the unique roles of mono-articular muscles for energy generation and bi-articular muscles for balancing of adjacent joint moments in the control of pedal force vector direction.

Restricted access

Running Economy: Neuromuscular and Joint-Stiffness Contributions in Trained Runners

Nicholas Tam, Ross Tucker, Jordan Santos-Concejero, Danielle Prins, and Robert P. Lamberts

: 688 – 691 . PubMed ID: 18085504 doi:10.1055/s-2007-989372 10.1055/s-2007-989372 18085504 29. Van Ingen Schenau GJ . From rotation to translation: constraints on multi-joint movements and the unique action of bi-articular muscles . Hum Mov Sci . 1989 ; 8 ( 4 ): 301 – 337 . doi:10

Restricted access

Children Who Are Overweight Display Altered Vertical Jump Kinematics and Kinetics From Children Who Are Not Overweight

Jeffrey C. Cowley, Steven T. McCaw, Kelly R. Laurson, and Michael R. Torry

GJ . From rotation to translation: constraints on multi-joint movements and the unique action of bi-articular muscles . Hum Mov Sci . 1989 ; 8 ( 4 ): 301 – 37 . doi:10.1016/0167-9457(89)90037-7 10.1016/0167-9457(89)90037-7 37. Wang L , Li JX , Xu DQ , Hong YL . Proprioception of ankle

Restricted access

Velocity–Load Jump Testing Predicts Acceleration Performance in Elite Speed Skaters: But Does Movement Specificity Matter?

Matthew Zukowski, Walter Herzog, and Matthew J. Jordan

horizontal and vertical jumps by bi-articular muscles . Int J Sport Health Sci . 2005 ; 3 : 272 – 279 . doi: 10.5432/ijshs.3.272 39. de Koning J , de Boer RW , de Groot G , van Ingen Schenau GJ . Push-off force in speed skating . J Appl Biomech . 1987 ; 3 ( 2 ): 103 – 109 . 40. van Ingen