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Jonathan Robertson, Ryan Storr, Andrew Bakos and Danny O’Brien

.g., homosexuality) and promoting an accepted identity within a given sport environment (e.g., heterosexuality; Melton & Bryant, 2017 ). Consequently, it is important for us to understand how these forms of institutional bias are continuously negotiated within the slow struggle for social change. Australian cricket

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L.R. Brawley

Psychological research concerning sport attributions has devoted much attention to motivational explanations of egocentric bias phenomena. Some theoretical explanations suggest bias is intentional in order to fulfill certain self-oriented needs. However, there is also evidence that cognitive processes such as memory can contribute to unintended egocentric biases. Two studies were conducted to investigate biases (a) in the available information used to make attributions, and (b) in the attributions of responsibility for actions or events. The subject samples examined were 12 men's doubles tennis teams and 32 coach-athlete pairs. Subjects responded to questions requiring recall of either important events and turning points during tennis matches (Study 1) or examples of joint interaction inputs (Study 2). Estimates of perceived responsibility for both dyad members were gathered from each subject. The data provided evidence for egocentric biases in available information and in responsibility attributions. A subject's own inputs to team efforts or to a two-person interaction were more easily and frequently remembered. Subjects consistently remembered more of their personal contributions than those of others, and accepted more responsibility for joint efforts than granted them by others regardless of event outcomes. Failure to include others' inputs in the recall of joint endeavors is explained by processes affecting memory. Implications for future research are discussed as well as the problems these unintended biases create for participant interaction.

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Henning Plessner

Several studies have found that gymnasts’ placement in within-team order affects their scores (e.g., Scheer & Ansorge, 1975). This effect has been explained in terms of judges’ expectations yielding a cognitive confirmation. In the present study, the influence of expectations on gymnastics judging was conceptualized within the schema approach of social cognition research. Three factors are addressed that contribute to the understanding of the placement effect: task difficulty, social situation, and process stages. In an experiment, 48 gymnastics judges scored videotaped routines of a men’s team competition. Target routines appeared either in the first or the fifth position of within-team order. Depending on the difficulty of the judgment task, a significant placement effect was found. This effect resulted from biased encoding of single elements, as well as from heuristic judgment strategies. Results are discussed in reference to the practice of gymnastics judging.

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Leanne C. Findlay and Diane M. Ste-Marie

The current study examined whether expectations, assumed to be created by the positive reputation of an athlete, produced a bias in judging at either the encoding or evaluation phase of sport performance appraisal. The short programs of 14 female figure skaters were evaluated by judges to whom the athletes were either known or unknown. Ordinal rankings were found to be higher when skaters were known by the judges as compared to when they were unknown. Furthermore, skaters received significantly higher technical merit marks when known, although artistic marks did not differ. No significant differences were found for the identification of elements or associated deductions, measures which were assumed to be indicative of the encoding phase of judging. These findings suggest that a reputation bias does exist when judging figure skating, and that it is present during the evaluation phase of sport performance appraisal, as reflected by the ordinal and technical merit marks.

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Julia A. Valley and Kim C. Graber

Purpose:

This study examined physical education teachers’ awareness of gender equitable practices as well as the language and behaviors they employed in the physical education environment. The purpose of the study was to determine (a) what teachers know about gender equitable practices, (b) what types of gender bias are demonstrated, and (c) how teachers are influenced to adopt gender equitable behaviors in the physical education context.

Method:

A multiple-case study approach was used to provide an in-depth analysis of the attitudes and behaviors of four physical education teachers from four different schools. Teachers were formally and informally interviewed before, during, and after four extensive two-week periods of observations that included being audio recorded throughout the school day.

Results:

Themes emerged across the cases indicating that teachers engaged in teaching practices that reinforced gender stereotypes through biased language and gender segregation.

Discussion/Conclusion:

Teachers’ lack of awareness and understanding of gender equity prevented them from providing an inclusive learning experience for all students.

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Lawrence R. Brawley, Daniel M. Landers, Lynn Miller and Kathryn F. Kearns

The phenomenon of women being prejudiced against women in situations involving judgmental or evaluative-type motor tasks was examined. In Study 1, conducted in 1971, 26 male and 26 female college students evaluated both a male and a female accomplice who performed a muscularendurance task. Actual time of task performance was kept constant at 120 sec. Subjects made two estimates for each accomplice: a preperformance time and postperformance time. ANOVA indicated that subjects, regardless of sex, estimated preperformance and postperformance times significantly higher for male accomplices than females. Observers overestimated actual performance of male accomplices but underestimated females. Study 2 replicated Study 1 six years later to examine possible changes in judgmental bias over time. Results replicated the preperformance findings, and partially replicated postperformance results. In contrast to the earlier study, all subjects overestimated actual performance but male accomplices were overestimated to a greater extent than females.

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Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Patrick O. McKeon

note, we would like to further expound on the “critical” and “critique” part of CATs, and the appraisal that is an essential skill set for an evidence-based practitioner and consumer of the scientific literature. Specifically, we are highlighting bias —that word that has strong negative connotations

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Martin Eubank, Dave Collins and Nick Smith

Beck’s (1976) theoretical account of emotional vulnerability predicts that individuals who are vulnerable to anxiety will exhibit a cognitive processing bias for the threatening interpretation of ambiguous information. As anxiety direction (Jones, 1995) may best account for individual differences, the aim of this study was to establish whether such processing bias is a function of anxiety interpretation. Anxiety facilitators and debilitators underwent a modified Stroop test by reacting to neutral and ambiguous word types in neutral, positive, and negative mood conditions. A significant 3-way interaction, F(4, 60) = 3.02, p < .05, was evident, with the reaction time of facilitators being slowest for ambiguous words in the positive mood condition and debilitators being slowest for ambiguous words in the negative mood condition. The findings illustrate the important role that anxiety interpretation plays in the mechanism involved in the processing of ambiguous information.

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Paul D. Loprinzi, Bradley J. Cardinal, Carlos J. Crespo, Gary R. Brodowicz, Ross E. Andersen and Ellen Smit

Background:

The exclusion of participants with invalid accelerometry data (IAD) may lead to biased results and/or lack of generalizability in large population studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether demographic, behavioral, and biological differences occur between those with IAD and valid accelerometry data (VAD) among adults using a representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population.

Methods:

Ambulatory participants from NHANES (2003−2004) who were 20−85 years of age were included in the current study and wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for 7 days. A “valid person” was defined as those with 4 or more days of at least 10+ hrs of monitoring per day. Among adults (20−85 yrs), 3088 participants provided VAD and 987 provided IAD. Demographic, behavioral, and biological information were obtained from the household interview or from data obtained in a mobile examination center.

Results:

Differences were observed in age, BMI, ethnicity, education, smoking status, marital status, use of street drugs, current health status, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, self-reported vigorous physical activity, and plasma glucose levels between those with VAD and IAD.

Conclusions:

Investigators should take into consideration the potential cut-off bias in interpreting results based on data that excludes IAD participants.

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Martin Eubank, Dave Collins and Nick Smith

In the presence of anxiety, threatening stimuli are allocated greater processing priority by high-trait-anxious individuals (Mathews, 1993). As anxiety direction (Jones, 1995) might best account for individual differences, this investigation aimed to establish whether or not such processing priority is a function of anxiety interpretation. Anxiety facilitators and debilitators performed a modified Stroop test (Stroop, 1935) by reacting to neutral, positive, and negative word types in neutral, positive, and negative mood conditions. A significant 3-way interaction, F(4,80) = 3.95, p < .05, was evident, with facilitators exhibiting a processing bias toward positive words in positive mood conditions. The data support the contention that anxiety interpretation is an important distinguishing variable in accounting for processing bias and support the potential contribution of cognitive restructuring practices to athletic performance.