bias) occurs at an earlier time of occlusion than for LS players. Indirect support for this possibility comes from visual inspection of response accuracy data for expert and novice rugby players’ responses to double sidestep actions (Figure 4 in Mori & Shimada, 2013 ). Here it can be seen that the
Seeing the Bigger Picture: Susceptibility to, and Detection of, Deception
Laurence S. Warren-West and Robin C. Jackson
Missing Data Reporting and Analysis in Motor Learning and Development: A Systematic Review of Past and Present Practices
Priya Patel, Seungmin Lee, Nicholas D. Myers, and Mei-Hua Lee
analysis is equally important. Inappropriate handling of missing data may lead to serious issues in data analysis, thereby reducing the validity of results ( Jeličić, Phelps, & Lerner, 2009 ). Problems, such as reduction in power ( Bennett, 2001 ; Enders, 2013 ), bias in parameter estimates ( Jones, 1996
“My Ideal Is Where It Is Just Jane the Cricketer, Rather Than Jane the Gay Cricketer”: An Institutional Perspective of Lesbian Inclusion in Australian Cricket
Jonathan Robertson, Ryan Storr, Andrew Bakos, and Danny O’Brien
.g., homosexuality) and promoting an accepted identity within a given sport environment (e.g., heterosexuality; Melton & Bryant, 2017 ). Consequently, it is important for us to understand how these forms of institutional bias are continuously negotiated within the slow struggle for social change. Australian cricket
State-Level Politics and Bias Predict Transgender Athlete Bans
Kelsey M. Garrison and George B. Cunningham
Prevention, 2022 ). The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the state-level bans in the United States in further depth. Specifically, we draw from an interdisciplinary perspective to examine the relationships among political leanings of a state, state-level biases against transgender people, and
Recognizing the Impact of Bias in Faculty Recruitment, Retention, and Advancement Processes
Jared A. Russell, Sheri Brock, and Mary E. Rudisill
, logistical, and administrative structures/processes that would support an inclusive excellence environment ( Chin & Trimble, 2015 ; Hale, 2004 ; Smith, 2015 ; Williams, 2007 ). One area in need of attention in creating inclusive excellence is implicit bias and how it can influence faculty recruitment
Errors in Measuring Glenohumeral Arthrokinematics With 2-Dimensional Fluoroscopy
Meena Makhija, Jasobanta Sethi, Chitra Kataria, Harpreet Singh, Paula M. Ludewig, and Vandana Phadke
“bias” calculated as the mean difference between the measurements in the ideal condition/true value (such as images in true AP view or images corrected for optical distortion) and the imposed experimental condition (out-of-plane rotations or distorted images). The “accuracy” was calculated in the scale
Unintentional Egocentric Biases in Attributions
Psychological research concerning sport attributions has devoted much attention to motivational explanations of egocentric bias phenomena. Some theoretical explanations suggest bias is intentional in order to fulfill certain self-oriented needs. However, there is also evidence that cognitive processes such as memory can contribute to unintended egocentric biases. Two studies were conducted to investigate biases (a) in the available information used to make attributions, and (b) in the attributions of responsibility for actions or events. The subject samples examined were 12 men's doubles tennis teams and 32 coach-athlete pairs. Subjects responded to questions requiring recall of either important events and turning points during tennis matches (Study 1) or examples of joint interaction inputs (Study 2). Estimates of perceived responsibility for both dyad members were gathered from each subject. The data provided evidence for egocentric biases in available information and in responsibility attributions. A subject's own inputs to team efforts or to a two-person interaction were more easily and frequently remembered. Subjects consistently remembered more of their personal contributions than those of others, and accepted more responsibility for joint efforts than granted them by others regardless of event outcomes. Failure to include others' inputs in the recall of joint endeavors is explained by processes affecting memory. Implications for future research are discussed as well as the problems these unintended biases create for participant interaction.
Anxiety and Ambiguity: It’s All Open to Interpretation
Martin Eubank, Dave Collins, and Nick Smith
Beck’s (1976) theoretical account of emotional vulnerability predicts that individuals who are vulnerable to anxiety will exhibit a cognitive processing bias for the threatening interpretation of ambiguous information. As anxiety direction (Jones, 1995) may best account for individual differences, the aim of this study was to establish whether such processing bias is a function of anxiety interpretation. Anxiety facilitators and debilitators underwent a modified Stroop test by reacting to neutral and ambiguous word types in neutral, positive, and negative mood conditions. A significant 3-way interaction, F(4, 60) = 3.02, p < .05, was evident, with the reaction time of facilitators being slowest for ambiguous words in the positive mood condition and debilitators being slowest for ambiguous words in the negative mood condition. The findings illustrate the important role that anxiety interpretation plays in the mechanism involved in the processing of ambiguous information.
Differences in Demographic, Behavioral, and Biological Variables Between Those With Valid and Invalid Accelerometry Data: Implications for Generalizability
Paul D. Loprinzi, Bradley J. Cardinal, Carlos J. Crespo, Gary R. Brodowicz, Ross E. Andersen, and Ellen Smit
The exclusion of participants with invalid accelerometry data (IAD) may lead to biased results and/or lack of generalizability in large population studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether demographic, behavioral, and biological differences occur between those with IAD and valid accelerometry data (VAD) among adults using a representative sample of the civilian noninstitutionalized U.S. population.
Ambulatory participants from NHANES (2003−2004) who were 20−85 years of age were included in the current study and wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for 7 days. A “valid person” was defined as those with 4 or more days of at least 10+ hrs of monitoring per day. Among adults (20−85 yrs), 3088 participants provided VAD and 987 provided IAD. Demographic, behavioral, and biological information were obtained from the household interview or from data obtained in a mobile examination center.
Differences were observed in age, BMI, ethnicity, education, smoking status, marital status, use of street drugs, current health status, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, self-reported vigorous physical activity, and plasma glucose levels between those with VAD and IAD.
Investigators should take into consideration the potential cut-off bias in interpreting results based on data that excludes IAD participants.
The Effects of Sport Organization Messaging Bias on Consumers: A Gender Focus
Damien Whitburn, Chelsey Taylor, Paul Turner, and Adam Karg
through digital channels ( Sport Australia, 2019 ). Alongside the audit on digital media representations, research on traditional sport media identifies bias toward man-centric activities and achievements ( O’Neill & Mulready, 2015 ; Rowe et al., 2016 ). This lack of focus on women decreases consumption