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Øyvind Skattebo and Thomas Losnegard

Biathlon is a complex Winter Olympic sport that combines intensive cross-country skiing with high-precision rifle marksmanship. Depending on the competition format, an event consists of 3 to 5 skiing laps of 2 to 4 km interspersed by 2 to 4 shootings, each consisting of 5 shots. The combination of

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Tom Toolis and Kerry McGawley

-skiing performance in elite biathletes, using ski durations and techniques simulating the demands of biathlon racing. It was hypothesized that wearing compression clothing would lead to significantly improved maximal TT performance and extend TTE. Methods A total of 7 senior biathletes (4 men and 3 women; age 25

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Laurent Schmitt, Stéphane Bouthiaux and Grégoire P. Millet

cross-country skiers. 1 , 5 , 7 , 8 Biathlon combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting, and requires considerable physiological demands, similar to those associated with competitive cross-country skiing, 9 , 10 while also requiring precise fine motor control for fast and accurate shooting under

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Harri Luchsinger, Jan Kocbach, Gertjan Ettema and Øyvind Sandbakk

Biathlon is an Olympic sport combining cross-country skiing with the skating technique and rifle shooting. Biathletes carry a 3.5-kg-long rifle around the ski tracks and stop at the shooting range to perform 5 shots in the prone or standing position between the 2.5- to 5.0-km laps. In the biathlon

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Harri Luchsinger, Jan Kocbach, Gertjan Ettema and Øyvind Sandbakk

Biathlon is an Olympic winter sport, where 3 or 5 (0.8–4 km) laps of cross-country skiing using the skating technique is interspersed with 5-shot series of rifle shooting, alternating between the prone or standing position. One of the traditional racing formats is the individual distance

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Gerold Sattlecker, Michael Buchecker, Christoph Gressenbauer, Erich Müller and Stefan J. Lindinger


To identify biomechanical predictors that distinguish between high- and low-score athletes in biathlon shooting and to determine the relationships among these variables in field testing.


Twenty-two biathletes (8 female, 14 male) from the World Cup, the European Cup, and a federal youth squad each fired 3 clips of 5 shots in prone and standing shooting positions without physical load, followed by 2 respective series in both disciplines during a simulated 12.5-km pursuit race on roller skis. Biomechanical variables describing triggering, rifle force in the back shoulder, and body and rifle sway were calculated over the last 0.5 second before firing. For computed linear discriminant analyses, subjects were divided into high- and low-level performers based on mean scores for each condition separately. In addition, correlations among all biomechanical factors were calculated.


Regarding prone shooting, shoulder force in the rest condition and vertical rifle sway in the race simulation were shown to be main discriminators. Several body- and rifle-sway variables were found to be predictors in standing rest shooting. Body sway across the shooting line discriminated the groups in the standing race situation tendentially. Thus, the main performance predictors changed due to fatigue. Correlations between triggering and rifle sway, shoulder force and rifle sway, and body sway and rifle sway were discovered.


Referring to the current results, athletes are recommended to focus on vertical rifle sway in prone position and on body sway across the shooting line during standing shooting when fatigued.

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Evgeny B. Myakinchenko, Andrey S. Kriuchkov, Nikita V. Adodin and Victor Feofilaktov

-level biathlon is not well illustrated in the literature. Moreover, the periodization of XC and biathletes’ TrVs who train according to the same coaching style has never been compared. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to describe and compare features of the periodization of TrV between international

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Edward C. Frederick

Elite biathletes now ski using skating techniques in place of the more traditional diagonal stride. Because of the more extreme flexion and extension of the trunk with these new techniques, it has become necessary to reevaluate the method of rifle carriage. This paper describes a model which evaluates the incremental mechanical power required to move the additional weight of the rifle through defined angular flexions and extensions of the trunk. By combining this model with actual observations of typical kinematics of trunk flexion, we can generate realistic estimates of the energy cost of rifle carriage. This approach is also used to evaluate the energy consequences of reduced rifle mass and of different rifle carriage strategies while moving with ski skating techniques. These results show that rotational kinetic energy changes are a minor part of the overall energy cost of rifle carriage, and that changes in the horizontal velocity of the rifle are the greatest source of increased cost of transport. The largest reductions in this cost, however, would come from reducing rifle mass because both potential and kinetic energies are affected. Additional but secondary reductions can be obtained by placing the rifle center of mass opposite the lumbosacral joint, thereby reducing horizontal and vertical excursions of the rifle.

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Maria Heikkilä, Raisa Valve, Mikko Lehtovirta and Mikael Fogelholm

–20 years old. The three main sports among the participants were cross-country skiing ( n  = 53 coaches and n  = 111 athletes), orienteering ( n  = 13 and n  = 110), and biathlon ( n  = 6 and n  = 38). Other sports were endurance running and racewalking, triathlon, cycling, swimming, rowing, and canoeing

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Guro S. Solli, Silvana B. Sandbakk, Dionne A. Noordhof, Johanna K. Ihalainen and Øyvind Sandbakk

. Therefore, the secondary aim of the current study was to describe athletes’ knowledge and communication with their coaches about the MC. Methods Participants As cross-country skiing and biathlon are demanding endurance sports in which approximately 90% of training consists of aerobic endurance exercises, 30