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Karen L. Perell, Robert J. Gregor and A.M. Erika Scremin

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bicycle exercise on knee-muscle strength and gait speed in 8 male participants with cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Isokinetic knee-extensor and -flexor strength were measured in both concentric- and eccentric-contraction modes. Fifty-foot walking tests were used for gait speed. After only 4 weeks of stationary recumbent cycling (12 sessions), participants improved eccentric muscle strength of the knee extensors, bilaterally. Walking-speed improvements approached but did not achieve significance with training. Improvement in concentric muscle strength of the knee extensors was observed in the involved limb, although most participants demonstrated a nonsignificant increase in muscle strength in the contralateral limb, as well. No improvements were demonstrated in the knee-flexor muscles. Thus, bicycle exercise serves to improve knee-extensor strength. In addition, these strength improvements might have implications for better control of walking in terms of bilateral improvement of eccentric muscle strength.

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Christina Huy, Simone Becker, Uwe Gomolinsky, Thomas Klein and Ansgar Thiel

Few middle-aged and elderly people get enough exercise from sports or leisure-time physical activity. Therefore, the impact of everyday physical activity on health is a matter of interest. The main objective of this study was to establish whether bicycle use in everyday life is positively associated with health. A sample of 982 randomly selected men and 1,020 women age 50–70 were asked in a computer-assisted telephone interview to provide information including a self-assessment of their health and physical activity. Self-assessed health correlates positively with bicycle use in everyday life (OR = 1.257; 95% CI: 1.031–1.532). Likewise, people who regularly cycle for transport are less likely to have medical risk factors (OR = 0.794; 95% CI: 0.652–0.967). This negative correlation is not diminished when sporting activity is controlled for. This indicates that positive effects of physical activity on risk factors can be also achieved solely by integrating more physical activity into routine everyday life.

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Roger Gilles

In the spring of 2012, I was lucky enough to gain access to a trunk load of memorabilia related to 1890s women’s bicycle racing—contracts, telegrams, photographs, publicity materials, letters, and hundreds and hundreds of yellowed newspaper clippings. The owner of the private collection, a

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Shani Batcir and Itshak Melzer

stimulating commuters to use bicycles instead of cars for short urban trips ( Hartog, Boogaard, Nijland, & Hoek, 2011 ; Mason, Fulton, & McDonald, 2015 ; Ogilvie, Egan, Hamilton, & Petticrew, 2004 ). Consequently, bicycling as a transport mode has rapidly increased worldwide ( Alliance for Biking & Walking

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Stephen Harvey, Chris Rissel and Mirjam Pijnappels

contribute to falls include reduced balance, muscle weakness, and gait impairments (for overview, see e.g., Fabre, Ellis, Kosma, & Wood, 2010 ). Rissel, Passmore, Mason, and Merom ( 2013 ) demonstrated that older adults who had a recent history of bicycle riding performed better on static and dynamic

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William Riggs, Megyn Rugh, Kelly Chung and Jana Schwartz

As the usage of bicycles increases, cities are transforming their planning processes to incorporate this sustainable mode of transportation. In spite of bicycling’s importance to communities, there is a gender gap. Data indicates that only a small number of cyclists are women. This paper addresses that gender gap with an eye toward the marketing strategy known as transportation demand management (TDM). TDM provides lessons for communities looking to encourage greater levels of bicycle riding. To do this we review the literature on best practices in marketing to women, and evaluate different bicycle marketing guides. We find, after an analysis to pinpoint best practices, that only 15% of the marketing guides are targeted to women. The lessons learned from our study provide information for the design of future bicycle guides that will appeal to women consumers.

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Antonio Dal Monte, L.M. Leonardi, C. Menchinelli and C. Marini

Advanced technology and biomechanics were applied in the development of a new bicycle. Factors investigated included the position of the cyclist, geometry of the bicycle, transmission system, and the drag characteristics. Several wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the minimum drag conditions for bicycle configurations and positions of the athlete. The results showed a clear advantage for nonspoked disc wheels of high composite material without discontinuity between the tire and the wheel. The conventional bicycle frame was redesigned and the optimum body position of the cyclist was determined. These findings were utilized in the development of the bicycle ridden by Francesco Moser in establishing a new 1-hour world record in 1984, and also in aiding the gold-medal-winning 4 × 100 km Italian team in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games.

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Thomas Gotschi

Background:

Promoting bicycling has great potential to increase overall physical activity; however, significant uncertainty exists with regard to the amount and effectiveness of investment needed for infrastructure. The objective of this study is to assess how costs of Portland’s past and planned investments in bicycling relate to health and other benefits.

Methods:

Costs of investment plans are compared with 2 types of monetized health benefits, health care cost savings and value of statistical life savings. Levels of bicycling are estimated using past trends, future mode share goals, and a traffic demand model.

Results:

By 2040, investments in the range of $138 to $605 million will result in health care cost savings of $388 to $594 million, fuel savings of $143 to $218 million, and savings in value of statistical lives of $7 to $12 billion. The benefit-cost ratios for health care and fuel savings are between 3.8 and 1.2 to 1, and an order of magnitude larger when value of statistical lives is used.

Conclusions:

This first of its kind cost-benefit analysis of investments in bicycling in a US city shows that such efforts are cost-effective, even when only a limited selection of benefits is considered.

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Marion E. Hambrick

Sport industry groups including athletes, teams, and leagues use Twitter to share information about and promote their products. The purpose of this study was to explore how sporting event organizers and influential Twitter users spread information through the online social network. The study examined two bicycle race organizers using Twitter to promote their events. Using social network analysis, the study categorized Twitter messages posted by the race organizers, identified their Twitter followers and shared relationships within Twitter, and mapped the spread of information through these relationships. The results revealed that the race organizers used their Twitter home pages and informational and promotional messages to attract followers. Popular Twitter users followed the race organizers early, typically within the first 4 days of each homepage’s creation, and they helped spread information to their respective followers. Sporting event organizers can leverage Twitter and influential users to share information about and promote their events.

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Cal Stone and Maury L. Hull

This paper provides measurements of rider-induced loads during standing cycling. Two strain gauge dynamometers were used to measure these loads while three subjects rode bicycles on a large motorized treadmill; the cycling situation simulated hill climbing while standing. Comparing the results to those previously published for seated cycling revealed that the loading for standing cycling differed fundamentally from that for seated cycling in certain key respects. One respect was that the maximum magnitude normal pedal force reached substantially higher values, exceeding the weight of the subject, and the phase occurred later in the crank cycle. Another respect was that the direction of the handlebar forces alternated indicating that the arms pulled up and back during the power stroke of the corresponding leg and pushed down and forward during the upstroke. Inasmuch as these forces were coordinated (i.e., in phase) with the leaning of the bicycle, the arms developed positive power.