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Viviene A. Temple, P. Lynn Purves, Robyn Misovic, Coral J. Lewis and Carrie DeBoer

Many children with disabling conditions do not acquire the skills to successfully ride a 2-wheeled bicycle. The aim was to describe cycling patterns before and after an innovative learn-to-ride bike camp and factors that facilitate or hinder the generalization of skills developed at camp to home. Parents and children participated in semistructured interviews 3–4 mo postcamp. Transcripts were examined deductively for participation and contextual influences using a template of codes approach. None of the children were successfully riding a 2-wheeled bicycle before camp. Two patterns of participation were evident from narrative descriptions of postcamp riding: “riders” and “not there yet.” Major facilitating factors were the camp itself, the interaction between the camp and the health service, and continued parent involvement. The program transferred well to home for children who were riding independently on the last day of camp. Ongoing support is needed for children “not there yet.”

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Kate Lyden, Sarah Kozey Keadle, John Staudenmayer, Patty Freedson and Sofiya Alhassan

Background:

The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth assigns MET values to a wide range of activities. However, only 35% of activity MET values were derived from energy cost data measured in youth; the remaining activities were estimated from adult values.

Purpose:

To determine the energy cost of common activities performed by children and adolescents and compare these data to similar activities reported in the compendium.

Methods:

Thirty-two children (8−11 years old) and 28 adolescents (12−16 years) completed 4 locomotion activities on a treadmill (TRD) and 5 age-specific activities of daily living (ADL). Oxygen consumption was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer.

Results:

In children, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 3 activities [basketball, bike riding, and Wii tennis (1.1−3.5 METs lower)]. In adolescents, measured METs were significantly lower than compendium METs for 4 ADLs [basketball, bike riding, board games, and Wii tennis (0.3−2.5 METs lower)] and 3 TRDs [2.24 m·s-1, 1.56 m·s-1, and 1.34 m·s-1 (0.4−0.8 METs lower)].

Conclusion:

The Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth is an invaluable resource to applied researchers. Inclusion of empirically derived data would improve the validity of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.

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Anders Lindelof, Claus Vinther Nielsen and Birthe D. Pedersen

Background:

Individuals’ attitude toward physical activity may contribute to their willingness to participate in such behavior. This study qualitatively and longitudinally explored obese adolescents’ attitudes to physical activity.

Methods:

Fifteen obese adolescents were recruited at a weight loss camp. Participants were followed for 2.5 years with 3 yearly rounds of participant observations and interviews. Data were analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach.

Results:

Four categories were identified: 1) throughout the study participants became more sedentary as they de-selected activities like bike riding; 2) participants did not perceive their increasing inactive lifestyle as hindering weight loss as they consider such activities as futile compared with vigorously hard exercise; 3) participants frequently failed to participate in hard exercise, like going to the gym; and 4) participants had a genuine antipathy against being physical active.

Conclusions:

Among others, a reason why obese adolescents fail to live an active life is that they find limited pleasure in such behavior. It is argued that obese adolescents need a positive attitude toward physical activity if they are to be more active. With reference to Bourdieu’s theory of practice, it is hypothesized that such attitude needs to be learned through everyday life by experiencing joy and meaning by being physical active.

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Anja Groβek, Christiana van Loo, Gregory E. Peoples, Markus Hagenbuchner, Rachel Jones and Dylan P. Cliff

Background:

This study reports energy expenditure (EE) data for lifestyle and ambulatory activities in young children.

Methods:

Eleven children aged 3 to 6 years (mean age = 4.8 ± 0.9; 55% boys) completed 12 semistructured activities including sedentary behaviors (SB), light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) over 2 laboratory visits while wearing a portable metabolic system to measure EE.

Results:

Mean EE values for SB (TV, reading, tablet and toy play) were between 0.9 to 1.1 kcal/min. Standing art had an energy cost that was 1.5 times that of SB (mean = 1.4 kcal/min), whereas bike riding (mean = 2.5 kcal/min) was similar to LPA (cleaning-up, treasure hunt and walking) (mean = 2.3 to 2.5 kcal/min), which had EE that were 2.5 times SB. EE for MVPA (running, active games and obstacle course) was 4.2 times SB (mean = 3.8 to 3.9 kcal/min).

Conclusion:

EE values reported in this study can contribute to the limited available data on the energy cost of lifestyle and ambulatory activities in young children.

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Woubeshet Ayenew, Emily C. Gathright, Ellen M. Coffey, Amber Courtney, Jodi Rogness and Andrew M. Busch

issues, with the planning phase (∼3 mo) consuming a significant portion of the available Minnesota bike riding season (∼7 mo). However, it is notable that this planning phase allowed us to find the right exercise program and forge the right community partnerships needed for an accessible, low

Open access

Viviene A. Temple, Dawn L. Lefebvre, Stephanie C. Field, Jeff R. Crane, Beverly Smith and Patti-Jean Naylor

57.7 62.8 45.5 .039  Volunteering 3.1 3.3 2.6 .592  Chores 61.5 62.8 58.4 .444  Homework 28.8 31.7 22.1 .249  Shopping 75.4 81.4 61.0 .009 Physical activities  Martial arts 16.9 16.4 18.2 .545  Track & Field 7.7 7.7 7.8 .592  Team sports 31.2 35.0 22.1 .124  School clubs 5.0 4.4 6.5 .467  Bike riding

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Cheryl A. Howe, Kimberly A. Clevenger, Danielle McElhiney, Camille Mihalic and Moira A. Ragan

Descriptions for Trait Measures of Physical Activity Enjoyment A. HBQ: Positive/Negative support for PA Response options  1. One or both of my parents are physically active. They do exercises like running, jogging, walking fast, bike riding, swimming, dancing, or skating. Yes (+); No (–)  2. One or both of my

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Lisa M. Barnett, David R. Lubans, Anna Timperio, Jo Salmon and Nicola D. Ridgers

activity. A 9-year-old can engage in many different activities to accumulate daily MVPA, such as swimming, bike riding, and skateboarding, and children may not perceive their FMS ability to relate to engagement in these kinds of diverse play activities. In fact, recent research supports that children

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Brian Tyo, Rebecca Spataro-Kearns and David R. Bassett Jr.

worn on the opposite hip in the same fashion. The HJ-303 was placed in the front pocket of the pants. Participants were instructed to wear the pedometers simultaneously during all waking hours except when bathing or showering. Participants were discouraged from performing bike riding and elliptical

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Davy Vancampfort, Brendon Stubbs, James F. Sallis, Justine Nabanoba, David Basangwa, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Sandra S. Kasoma, Marc De Hert, Inez Myin-Germeys and James Mugisha

time spent walking included walking for exercise or recreation or to get to or from places, whereas structured exercise included any activity that patients do for exercise and sport, such as jogging, running, swimming, bike riding, and going to the gym. The SIMPAQ is a reliable and valid questionnaire