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Josely C. Koury, Astrogildo V. de Oliveira Jr., Emílson S. Portella, Cyntia F. de Oliveira, Gustavo C. Lopes and Carmen M. Donangelo

The purpose of this study was lo compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocyles; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.

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Paula J. Ziegler, Judith A. Nelson and Satya S. Jonnalagadda

This study assessed the nutrient intake, body composition and biochemical indices of National Figure Skating Championship competitors. Four-day diet records, fasting blood samples, and anthropometric measurements were obtained 2 months after the National Championships from 41 figure skaters 11-18 years of age. Energy, carbohydrate, fat, dietary fiber and cholesterol intake were significantly lower compared to the NHANES III averages for adolescents in the U.S. In general, the mean intakes for most vitamins except vitamin D and E were above the recommended intake. But the athletes had lower intakes of vitamin E and B12, and higher intakes of vitamin C, and thiamin (females only) compared with NHANES III. The mean intakes of magnesium, zinc, and iodine by the male skaters were below the recommended levels, as were the mean intakes of calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc by the female skaters. Also, the number of servings from vegetable, fruit, dairy, and meat groups were below the recommended levels. Biochemical indices of nutritional status were within normal limits for all skaters. But plasma electrolyte concentrations were indicative of potential dehydration status. The results suggest there is a need to develop dietary intervention and educational programs targeted at promoting optimal nutrient and fluid intakes by these athletes to maintain performance and improve long-term health status.

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Veronica A. Mullins, Linda B. Houtkooper, Wanda H. Howell, Scott B. Going and C. Harmon Brown

This study describes the body composition, dietary nutrient intake, dietary practices, and biochemical indices of iron status of elite female American heptathletes during training. Four-day diet records and dietary practice questionnaires were obtained from 19 female heptathletes (26 ± 3 years) during the training season. Anthropometric measurements and fasting blood samples were obtained at the lowest phase of the training cycle. These athletes had a low body fat (13.8 ± 2.7%) and high fat-free mass to height ratios (33.0 ± 2.0 kg/m). Average nutrient intakes were > 67% of the reference intakes for all nutrients except vitamin E. Most dietary nutrient densities were higher than NHANES III nutrient densities for women 20–29 years old. More than 50% of the athletes took vitamin supplements and monitored their hydration status. Fifteen of the 17 athletes reported a normal menstrual cycle. Markers of biochemical iron status were all within the normal range. On average, these athletes were lean with high levels of fat free mass, adequate nutrient intakes, and normal biochemical indices of iron status. However, individual data reveals considerable variability within this group.

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Mikael Fogelholm, Seppo Rehunen, Carl-Gustav Gref, Juha T. Laakso, Jari Lehto, Lnkeri Ruokonen and Jaakko-Juhani Himberg

This study evaluated how different training periods affect dietary intake and biochemical indices of thiamin, iron, and zinc status in elite Nordic skiers. Subjects.were 17 skiers and 39 controls, ages 18-38 yrs. Dietary data were collected by 7-day food records at 3-month intervals. Coefficient of variation (CV) was used to indicate magnitude of seasonal changes. Energy intake for the year (28 food record days) was 3,802 kcallday (CV 19.1%) in male skiers, 2,754 kcallday (CV 3.7%) in male controls, 2,812 kcallday (CV 9.1%) in female skiers, and 2,013 kcallday (CV 5.9%) in female controls. CVs for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc intake were 14.1-23.9% (male skiers), 2.9-15.0% (male controls), 4.8-24.5% (female skiers), and 4.3-1 1.5% (female controls). Seasonal changes in energy, carbohydrate, and micronutrient intakes reflected energy expenditure in male endurance athletes particularly. Erythrocyte transketolase activation coefficients and serum ferritin and zinc concentrations did not differ between skiers and controls. Seasonal variations in these biochemical indices of nutritional status were of the same magnitude in skiers and controls, despite large changes in skiers' physical activity.

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John D. Robertson, Ronald J. Maughan, Ann C. Milne and Ronald J.L. Davidson

Blood biochemical indices of iron status were measured in venous blood from 20 runners and 6 control subjects. All subjects were.male, ages 20 to 40 years, and stable with regard to body weight and degree of physical activity. Dietary analysis was undertaken using a 7-day weighed food intake. There was no evidence of iron deficiency: hemoglobin concentrations and serum femtin levels were within the normal population range for all individuals. However, serum ferritin was negatively correlated with the amount of training. Daily iron intake appeared to be adequate; iron intake was correlated with protein intake but not related to training or energy intake. Serum ferritin, an indicator of iron status, was significantly correlated with vitamin C intake but not iron intake. Serum transferrin concentration was higher in the group of athletes undertaking a high weekly training load compared with the control subjects, suggesting an alteration in iron metabolism although there was no evidence of increased erythropoiesis. The biological significance of this is unclear.

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Valéria Cristina Provenza Paschoal and Olga Maria Silverio Amancio

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the body composition, dietary intake, use of nutritional supplements, and biochemical status of 8 Brazilian male elite swimmers, aged 18–21 years, participants at a national swimming competition. Data from the athletes were obtained through a 4-day food record, a fasting blood sample, and anthropometric measurements. The anthropometric results showed that body composition was compatible with sport category. The dietary assessment showed an adequate ingestion of calories, vitamins, and mineral, with the exception of calcium, for which only half of the sample reached the recommendation. The results also indicated low carbohydrate and high protein and cholesterol intakes. Of the swimmers, 62.5% and 25% consumed synthetic aminoacids and antioxidants supplements, respectively. The biochemical indices of the nutritional status were within normal limits in all swimmers, with the exception of creatine-kinase, which was above the recommended level, indicating muscle degradation probably due to poor carbohydrate intake. In conclusion, the results suggest the importance of nutritional education to promote a balanced intake, provide all nutrients in optimal amounts, inhibit unnecessary ingestion of nutritional supplements, maintain ideal performance, and improve the swimmers’ health status.

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Turnover Rates in Young Swimmers in Training and Age-Matched Non-Training Individuals John B. Leiper * Ron J. Maughan * 6 2004 14 14 3 3 347 347 357 357 10.1123/ijsnem.14.3.347 Zinc and Copper Biochemical Indices of Antioxidant Status in Elite Athletes of Different Modalities Josely C. Koury

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Marta C. Erlandson, Shonah B. Runalls, Stefan A. Jackowski, Robert A. Faulkner and Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

Sports Exerc . 1997 ; 29 ( 10 ): 1344 – 9 . PubMed doi:10.1097/00005768-199710000-00011 10.1097/00005768-199710000-00011 9346166 15. Daly RM , Rich PA , Klein R , Bass S . Effects of high-impact exercise on ultrasonic and biochemical indices of skeletal status: a prospective study in young

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Lauren A. Burt, David A. Greene and Geraldine A. Naughton

, Bachrach LK , Fung EB editors. Bone Densitometry in Growing Patients . Totowa, NJ : Humana Press , 2007 , pp.  41 – 57 . 10.1007/978-1-59745-211-3_3 10. Daly RM , Rich PA , Klein R , Bass S . Effects of high-impact exercise on ultrasonic and biochemical indices of skeletal status: a

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Bareket Falk, Panagiota Klentrou, Neil Armstrong, Thomas Rowland and Han C.G. Kemper

bicycle ergometer . Can Med Assoc J . 1963 ; 88 : 351 – 5 . PubMed 14024227 30. Daly RM , Rich PA , Klein R , Bass S . Effects of high-impact exercise on ultrasonic and biochemical indices of skeletal status: a prospective study in young male gymnasts . J Bone Miner Res . 1999 ; 14 ( 7