. Brancaccio P , Giuseppe L , Nicola M . Biochemical markers of muscular damage . Clin Chem Lab Med . 2010 ; 48 : 757 – 767 . PubMed ID: 20518645 doi:10.1515/CCLM.2010.179 20518645 10.1515/CCLM.2010.179 20. Ammar A , Chtourou H , Hammouda O , et al . Relationship between biomarkers of
Achraf Ammar, Stephen J. Bailey, Omar Hammouda, Khaled Trabelsi, Nabil Merzigui, Kais El Abed, Tarak Driss, Anita Hökelmann, Fatma Ayadi, Hamdi Chtourou, Adnen Gharbi and Mouna Turki
Josely C. Koury, Astrogildo V. de Oliveira Jr., Emílson S. Portella, Cyntia F. de Oliveira, Gustavo C. Lopes and Carmen M. Donangelo
The purpose of this study was lo compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocyles; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.
Takashi Kamijo and Masami Murakami
Lifestyle-related diseases among middle-age and elderly people have become serious problems. Underlying causes might be related to the changes in the lifestyle including the absence of regular physical exercise.
To clarify the significance of regular physical exercise to prevent lifestyle-related diseases, we studied motor functions and blood chemistry examinations in middle-age and elderly women (over 40 years old) who performed regular physical exercise for 2 years (exercise group) and those who initially did not (control group).
In study 1, VO2max significantly increased in the exercise group compared with the control group in the under 60 years old groups. In the over 60 years old groups, VO2max, foot balance, and HDL-cholesterol significantly increased. Plasma glucose at 120 minutes after the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-R), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) significantly decreased in the exercise group compared with the control group. In study 2, a 1-year exercise program significantly improved physical functions and biochemical markers in the control group.
These results suggest that regular physical exercise might help to maintain sound motor functions and decrease insulin resistance and a risk for arteriosclerosis.
Victor Silveira Coswig, David Hideyoshi Fukuda and Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio
The purpose of this study was to compare biochemical and hormonal responses between mixed martial arts (MMA) competitors with minimal prefight weight loss and those undergoing rapid weight loss (RWL). Blood samples were taken from 17 MMA athletes (Mean± SD; age: 27.4 ±5.3yr; body mass: 76.2 ± 12.4kg; height: 1.71 ± 0.05m and training experience: 39.4 ± 25 months) before and after each match, according to the official events rules. The no rapid weight loss (NWL, n = 12) group weighed in on the day of the event (~30 min prior fight) and athletes declared not having used RWL strategies, while the RWL group (n = 5) weighed in 24 hr before the event and the athletes claimed to have lost 7.4 ± 1.1kg, approximately 10% of their body mass in the week preceding the event. Results showed significant (p < .05) increases following fights, regardless of group, in lactate, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, and cortisol for all athletes. With regard to group differences, NWL had significantly (p < .05) greater creatinine levels (Mean± SD; pre to post) (NWL= 101.6 ± 15–142.3 ± 22.9μmol/L and RWL= 68.9 ± 10.6–79.5 ± 15.9μmol/L), while RWL had higher LDH (median [interquartile range]; pre to post) (NWL= 211.5[183–236] to 231[203–258]U/L and RWL= 390[370.5–443.5] to 488[463.5–540.5]U/L) and AST (NWL= 30[22–37] to 32[22–41]U/L and 39[32.5–76.5] to 72[38.5–112.5] U/L) values (NWL versus RWL, p < .05). Post hoc analysis showed that AST significantly increased in only the RWL group, while creatinine increased in only the NWL group. The practice of rapid weight loss showed a negative impact on energy availability and increased both muscle damage markers and catabolic expression in MMA fighters.
Agnieszka Kaczmarek, Alicja Nowak and Piotr Leszczynski
An increased occurrence of lifestyle-related diseases such as osteoporosis indicates the necessity for taking preventive action, including regularly engaging in physical activity. The aim of the study was to assess the areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and bone turnover markers levels in young adult women engaging in recreational horseback riding and to determine the relationship between training characteristics and bone metabolism indices.
The study involved 43 women: 23 equestrians and 20 age- and body mass index–matched controls. The hip and spine aBMD and serum levels of the bone turnover markers: osteocalcin and collagen type I cross-linked C-telopeptide were measured.
No significant differences were found in somatic features, concentrations of bone turnover markers, or bone mass variables. Correlation analysis of the equestrian participants showed significant relationship between body mass and BMDL1–L4 (P < .05) as well as between BMI and BMDL1–L4 (P ≤ .01) and z-score L1–L4 (P < .05).
The study showed no differences in bone mass and levels of bone metabolic indices between groups of women practicing horseback riding at the recreational level and subjects who do not participate in frequent systematic physical activity. No relationship between training characteristics and bone turnover markers were found.
D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke
obtaining, verifying and interpreting data needed to identify nutrition-related problems, their causes and their significance” ( Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2015 ). A complete assessment should ideally include dietary evaluation, anthropometry and body composition analysis, biochemical testing
Ammar Nebigh, Mohamed Elfethi Abed, Rihab Borji, Sonia Sahli, Slaheddine Sellami, Zouhair Tabka and Haithem Rebai
findings have been reported in prepubescent soccer players ( 36 ). Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies demonstrated that soccer practice induces positive adaptation of bone tissue in prepubescent boys ( 39 ) and in young female soccer players ( 30 ). Bone biochemical markers reflecting the cellular
Jahan Heidari, Jürgen Beckmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Michel Brink, K. Wolfgang Kallus, Claudio Robazza and Michael Kellmann
-specific interventions can be launched. 17 An ideal comprehensive monitoring encompasses psychological, social, and physiological factors. 19 Physiological monitoring comprises biochemical markers (eg, cortisol, blood lactate) and electrophysiological indices (eg, HR variability, individual alpha peak frequency
Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd
. change C: no sig. change Waist and hip circumference: no change for all groups Biochemical variables: HDL, LDL, VLDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, urinary sodium—no sig. difference among groups except VLDL in land group sig. decreased Lowering of BP of hypertensive women in AE was
Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito
with measures of performance, perceived exertion, and biochemical variables during a field-based uphill TT in elite cyclists. Previous studies have reported that the uphill TT is the stage with the highest exercise intensity in competitive road cycling. 3 , 9 This assumption is supported by our