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Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha and Analiza M. Silva

conditions. 3 , 4 The bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA), described in detail by Piccoli et al, 5 Lukaski and Piccoli, 6 and Buffa et al, 7 considers the impedance components (resistance [R] and reactance [Xc]) independently of regression predictions of fluid volumes or assumptions about the

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Tori M. Stone, Jonathan E. Wingo, Brett S. Nickerson and Michael R. Esco

height was measured to the nearest 0.1 cm with a stadiometer (SECA 213; Seca Ltd., Hamburg, Germany). Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis After measuring height and weight, subjects removed the right shoe and sock and rested supine on a gurney for the measurement of HFBIA. They lay quietly for a minimum of

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Kerri L. Vasold, Andrew C. Parks, Deanna M.L. Phelan, Matthew B. Pontifex and James M. Pivarnik

body composition using the two-compartment model (fat mass [FM] and fat-free mass [FFM]), and the limitations and feasibility of use vary with each method. Two well-accepted measurement methods used today include air displacement plethysmography (ADP) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Air

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Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee

Body composition is a significant health indicator. A wide range of devices and methods are available for its measurement, such as underwater weighing, skinfold testing, body mass index, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Changes in body composition

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Donna W. Lockner, Vivian H. Heyward, Sharon E. Griffin, Martim B. Marques, Lisa M. Stolarczyk and Dale R. Wagner

The Segal fatness-specific bioelectrical impedance (BIA) equations are useful for predicting fat-free mass (FFM). Stolarczyk et al, proposed a modified method of averaging the two equations for individuals who are neither lean nor obese, thus eliminating the need to know % BF a priori. To cross-validate this modification, we compared FFM determined using the averaging method versus hydrostatic weighing for 76 adults. Per the averaging method, accuracy for males was excellent (r = .91, SEE = 2.7kg, E = 2.7kg), with 78% of individuals within ± 3.5% BF predicted by hydrostatic weighing. Accuracy for females was lower (r = .88, SEE = 3.0kg, E = 3.1 kg), with %BF of 51% within ±3.5% of the reference method. The relative ease and practicality of the averaging method and the results of this study indicate this method may be useful with a diverse group.

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N. Kay Covington, Darlene A. Kluka and Phyllis A. Love

This investigation compared the percentage of body fat obtained using the bioelectrical impedance technique and the anthropometric technique on a black pediatric population consisting of 196 subjects, 93 girls and 103 boys, ages 5-11 years. Subjects were measured utilizing the Bioelectrical Impedance Analyzer-103 (RJL Systems, Inc.). In order to simulate a realistic school environment, protocol was deliberately not followed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at two sites: triceps and medial calf. The anthropometric and BIA percentages of body fat were compared using the Pearson product-moment coefficient or correlation and an ANOVA. The overall relationship between the groups was .809. Use of the BIA appears to lead to an overestimation of fatness in black children.

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Fredric L. Goss, Robert J. Robertson, John Dube, Jason Rutkowski, Joseph Andreacci, Brooke Lenz, Julie Ranalli and Krisi Frazee

This investigation examined the impact of a cycle ergometry exercise test (CET) on body composition determined using leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; Tanita Model TPF-305). Fifty three children (25 males, 28 females) aged 10-12 yr participated. BIA measures of body fat (BF) were obtained immediately before and within five min of a multistage CET administered to assess peak oxygen consumption. Correlations (P = 0.01) of 0.99 were noted between the pre and post CET measures of BF. A systematic difference was not found in BIA measures obtained before and after CET. BF decreased by 0.4 and 1.2% following CET in the male and female subjects, respectively.

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Josely C. Koury, Nádia M.F. Trugo and Alexandre G. Torres

The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12–19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20–50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = –.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced.

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Ava Kerr, Gary Slater, Nuala Byrne and Janet Chaseling

The three-compartment (3-C) model of physique assessment (fat mass, fat-free mass, water) incorporates total body water (TBW) whereas the two-compartment model (2-C) assumes a TBW of 73.72%. Deuterium dilution (D2O) is the reference method for measuring TBW but is expensive and time consuming. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS SFB7) estimates TBW instantaneously and claims high precision. Our aim was to compare SFB7 with D2O for estimating TBW in resistance trained males (BMI >25kg/m2). We included TBWBIS estimates in a 3-C model and contrasted this and the 2-C model against the reference 3-C model using TBWD2O. TBW of 29 males (32.4 ± 8.5 years; 183.4 ± 7.2 cm; 92.5 ± 9.9 kg; 27.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) was measured using SFB7 and D2O. Body density was measured by BODPOD, with body composition calculated using the Siri equation. TBWBIS values were consistent with TBWD2O (SEE = 2.65L; TE = 2.6L) as were %BF values from the 3-C model (BODPOD + TBWBIS) with the 3-C reference model (SEE = 2.20%; TE = 2.20%). For subjects with TBW more than 1% from the assumed 73.72% (n = 16), %BF from the 2-C model differed significantly from the reference 3-C model (Slope 0.6888; Intercept 5.093). The BIS SFB7 measured TBW accurately compared with D2O. The 2C model with an assumed TBW of 73.72% introduces error in the estimation of body composition. We recommend TBW should be measured, either via the traditional D2O method or when resources are limited, with BIS, so that body composition estimates are enhanced. The BIS can be accurately used in 3C equations to better predict TBW and BF% in resistance trained males compared with a 2C model.

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João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino

and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; and measurement of resistance, reactance, and PhA by spectral bioelectrical impedance were performed. The posttraining measurements were performed at least 72 hr after the final RT session to avoid the acute effects of the last RT session. The other 12