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Lindsay Shaw, Leonard Zaichkowsky and Vietta Wilson

The present paper evaluated the efficacy of a biofeedback/neurofeedback training program to create an optimal preperformance state to improve gymnasts’ balance beam performance in competition. Training to increase heart rate variability (HRV) and sensorimotor rhythm while inhibiting theta was provided to 11 Division I gymnasts in 10 15-min sessions. Results of this uncontrolled study indicated that competition scores and scores from an independently judged video assessment improved throughout the training, beta decreased from preto postassessment, and there were no changes in HRV, sensorimotor rhythm, or theta. The withdrawal of training resulted in a decline of competition scores.

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Marla K. Beauchamp, Richard H. Harvey and Pierre H. Beauchamp

The present article outlines the development and implementation of a multifaceted psychological skills training program for the Canadian National Short Track Speedskating team over a 3-year period leading up to the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games. A program approach was used emphasizing a seven-phase model in an effort to enhance sport performance (Thomas, 1990) in which psychological skills training was integrated with biofeedback training to optimize self-regulation for performance on demand and under pressure. The biofeedback training protocols were adapted from general guidelines described by Wilson, Peper, and Moss (2006) who built on the work of DeMichelis (2007) and the “Mind Room” program approach for enhancing athletic performance. The goal of the program was to prepare the athletes for their best performance under the pressure of the Olympic Games. While causation cannot be implied due to the lack of a control group, the team demonstrated success on both team and individual levels.

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Sommer Christie, Maurizio Bertollo and Penny Werthner

Neurofeedback training (NFT) and biofeedback training (BFT) refer to a set of procedures, guided by a practitioner, that use equipment to measure, process, and feed back neurological and physiological information that contributes to the development of greater self-awareness and voluntary control

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Pawel R. Golyski, Elizabeth M. Bell, Elizabeth M. Husson, Erik J. Wolf and Brad D. Hendershot

focused on gait modification has been used to control or alter mechanical loads during ambulation and ultimately minimize the risk for longer-term complications. Existing implementation of such strategies, particularly those involving (bio)feedback, is commonly based on discrete parameters (ie, peak of a

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Kathleen U. Farmer

Peak performance is trainable through biofeedback, autogenic relaxation or quieting the mind, and visualization while in a theta brain wave state. How to achieve this integration of body, mind, and spirit is described in the following article. Research substantiates that mental practice in a receptive mind activates specific parts of the brain and ultimately enhances performance when the physical movements are acted out. Because most athletes are kinesthetic learners, their “visualizations” need to be complete experiences, encompassing sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and muscular sensations. This article presents techniques that clinicians can learn and pass on to athletes in their care.

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Christopher M. Saliba, Allison L. Clouthier, Scott C.E. Brandon, Michael J. Rainbow and Kevin J. Deluzio

osteoarthritis. 7 , 8 During gait retraining sessions, indicators of kinematic or kinetic measures can be delivered in real-time though audible, visual, or haptic feedback. 9 , 10 The knee adduction moment is a marker for the medial contact force and has been the target of biofeedback to reduce knee loading. 9

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Boris Blumenstein, Michael Bar-Eli and Gershon Tenenbaum

A five-step approach of mental training incorporating biofeedback (BFB) with videocassette recorder (VCR) is presented in this article. The technique consists of five stages, with flexible time-session limits that can be individualized. These are (a) introducing mental techniques, (b) determining and strengthening the appropriate BFB modality, (c) BFB training with simulated competitive stress, (d) transformation of the mental training to practice, and (e) realization of the technique in competitive situations. The technique and some findings are further discussed.

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Daniel J. De Witt

Cognitive training is a broad term referring to a wide variety of psychological techniques that help individuals alter their own thoughts and perceptions. Biofeedback training allows individuals to become aware of typical patterns of physiological responding to environmental events. Two studies investigated whether a training program which combined these techniques would help athletes reduce competitive stress reactions and improve competitive performance. Studies of football players and basketball players found statistically significant differences (p < .05) between pre- and posttreatment comparisons of performance ratings. In the second study, a treatment group improved performance whereas a contact control group did not. Subjects in the treatment condition reported feeling more comfortable and confident in discussions subsequent to the training.

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Kirrie J. Ballard, Heather D. Smith, Divija Paramatmuni, Patricia McCabe, Deborah G. Theodoros and Bruce E. Murdoch

Knowledge of Performance (KP) feedback, such as biofeedback or kinematic feedback, is used to provide information on the nature and quality of movement responses for the purpose of guiding active learning or rehabilitation of motor skills. It has been proposed that KP feedback may interfere with long-term learning when provided throughout training. Here, twelve healthy English-speaking adults were trained to produce a trilled Russian [r] in words with KP kinematic feedback using electropalatography (EPG) and without KP (noKP). Five one-hour training sessions were provided over one week with testing pretraining and one day and one week posttraining. No group differences were found at pretraining or one day post training for production accuracy. A group by time interaction supported the hypothesis that providing kinematic feedback continually during skill acquisition interferes with retention.

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Shandi L. Partner, Mark Alan Sutherlin, Shellie Acocello, Susan A. Saliba, Eric M. Magrum and Joe M. Hart


Individuals with low back pain (LBP) have reduced function of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles. Biofeedback during exercise may increase the ability to contract the TrA and LM muscles compared with exercise alone.


To compare TrA preferential activation ratio (PAR) and the percent change in LM-muscle thickness in patients with LBP history before and after exercise with or without biofeedback.


Controlled laboratory study.


University research laboratory.


20 LBP individuals, 10 exercise alone and 10 exercise with biofeedback.


Patients were allotted to tabletop exercises in isolation or tabletop exercises with visual, auditory, and tactile biofeedback.

Main Outcome Measures:

TrA PAR and percent change in LM-muscle thickness.


There were no differences between groups at baseline (all P > .05). Nonparametric statistics showed decreased resting muscle thickness for total lateral abdominal-wall muscles (P = .007) but not TrA (P = .410) or LM (P = .173). Percent TrA thickness increased from table to standing positions before (P = .006) and after exercise (P = .009). TrA PAR increased after exercise (pre 0.01 ± 0.02, post 0.03 ± 0.04, P = .033) for all patients and for exercise with biofeedback (pre 0.02 ± 0.01, post 0.03 ± 0.01, P = .037) but not for exercise alone (pre 0.01 ± 0.02, post 0.02 ± 0.05, P = .241). No group differences were observed for TrA PAR before (exercise 0.01 ± 0.02, exercise with biofeedback 0.02 ± 0.01, P = .290) or after exercise (exercise 0.02 ± 0.05, exercise with biofeedback 0.03 ± 0.01, P = .174). There were no group differences in LM percent change before exercise (P = .999) or after exercise (P = .597). In addition, no changes were observed in LM percent change as a result of exercise among all participants (P = .391) or for each group (exercise P = .508, exercise with biofeedback P = .575).


TrA PAR increased after a single session of exercises, whereas no thickness changes occurred in LM.