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Daniel K. Rogers, Ian McKeown, Gaynor Parfitt, Darren Burgess, and Roger G. Eston

this physical quality develops is impeded by a lack of research with younger age groups. In addition, the current body of research on AMC in youth ARF players has yet to consider the effect of biological maturation—a process occurring during adolescence and defined as the progression toward a mature

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Marie Javet, Stefan Fröhlich, Björn Bruhin, Walter O. Frey, Michael Romann, and Jörg Spörri

valuable insight in young and otherwise underdeveloped groups of athletes. The literature, however, lacks current age group- and gender-specific normative reference values, and only little is known about the influence of biological maturation (BM) on the SSPT results. Besides assessing the general physical

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Aristides M. Machado Rodrigues, Manuel J. Coelho e Silva, Jorge Mota, Sean P. Cumming, Lauren B. Sherar, Helen Neville, and Robert M. Malina

Sex differences in physical activity (PA) through pubertal maturation and the growth spurt are often attributed to changing interests. The contribution of sex differences in biological maturation to the adolescent decline has received limited attention. This study examined the contribution of somatic maturation to sex differences in objective assessments of sedentary behavior and PA in Portuguese adolescents (N = 302, aged 13–16 years). Maturation was estimated from the percentage of predicted mature stature and physically active and inactive behaviors assessed with Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. The influence of age, sex and their interaction on body size, maturation and physical behaviors were examined using factorial ANOVA and, subsequently, ANCOVA (controlling for maturation) tested the effect of sex. Males spent more time in MVPA and less time in sedentary behavior than females. However, sex differences were attenuated when maturation was controlled; thus suggesting that maturity may play an important role in adolescent behaviors.

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Robert M. Malina, Sean P. Cumming, and Manuel J. Coelho e Silva

“Gaps in Our Knowledge” are discussed in the context of the need to integrate biological and behavioral factors in a biocultural approach to physical activity and movement proficiency. Specific issues considered include outdoor play, organized and informal activity, biological maturation, tracking of activity, development of movement proficiency, and individual differences. Studies considered are largely based on youth in economically better-off, developed countries in the western culture context. There is a need to extend studies of physical activity and movement proficiency to different cultural contexts.

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Thelma S. Horn

One of the primary dilemmas surrounding the topic of early sport specialization is whether the practice develops talent or creates long-term psychological problems. The purpose of this paper is to discuss this issue using psychosocial and developmental frameworks. This review begins with an overview of several developmentallybased constructs (e.g., biological maturation, perceived competence, body image, self-identity, motivational orientation) that are relevant to the sport domain. These developmental progressions are then used to address some potential implications for children who begin intensive training and competition at an early age. Next, some socioenvironmental factors are explored, with specific links made to the early sport specialization process. Finally, the paper ends with four recommendations for future research on the topic.

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Brooke R. Stephens, Andrew S. Cole, and Anthony D. Mahon

This study examined substrate use during exercise in early-pubertal (EP), mid-pubertal (MP), late-pubertal (LP), and young-adult (YA) males. Fuel use was calculated using the RER and VO2 response during cycling exercise at 30 to 70% of VO2peak. Significant group by intensity interactions were found for lactate, RER, percent CHO, and fat use, in addition to fat and CHO oxidation rates, which suggest a maturation effect on substrate use during exercise. While significance was not achieved at all intensities, post hoc analyses revealed greater fat use, lower CHO use, and lower lactate concentrations in EP and MP compared to LP or YA. No differences were noted between EP and MP or LP and YA at any intensity, suggesting the development of an adult-like metabolic profile occurs between mid- to late-puberty and is complete by the end of puberty.

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Gabriele Gallo, Luca Filipas, Michele Tornaghi, Mattia Garbin, Roberto Codella, Nicola Lovecchio, and Daniele Zaccaria

, respiratory compensation point, peak power output) but not anaerobic (5-s maximum power output) characteristics. To date, it is still unknown whether chronological age, level of biological maturation, anthropometric, and physiological parameters are correlated with race performance in younger age groups and

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Gaston Beunen and Martine Thomis

This review builds on earlier reviews and considers the development of strength characteristics from childhood through adulthood. Since strength is associated with size and biological maturation, these associations are also discussed. Finally, genetic determinants of strength and tracking of strength components over time are also reviewed.

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Han C.G. Kemper, G. Bertheke Post, and Jos W.R. Twisk

This longitudinal study evaluates the relationship of food intake and physical activity with biological maturation of 200 boys and girls during adolescence and young adulthood. The subjects were followed during 9 years from ages 12 to 22 years, with repeated measurements at ages 13, 14, 15, 16, and 21. Biological maturation was estimated four times between ages 12 and 17 as skeletal age by radiographs of the left hand and wrist. Daily nutritional intake (macro- and micronutrients) was assessed with a cross-checked dietary history method. Daily physical activity was assessed through structured interview, whereby average weekly time spent in activity was used to assign a weighted activity score. The 107 girls and 93 boys were divided into three maturity groups: early maturers, late maturers, and average maturers. It was concluded that in both sexes, late maturation seemed to coincide with a higher energetic food intake and a slightly higher activity pattern than early maturation during adolescence.

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Lauren B. Sherar, Sean P. Cumming, Joey C. Eisenmann, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones, and Robert M. Malina

The decline in physical activity (PA) across adolescence is well established but influence of biological maturity on the process has been largely overlooked. This paper reviews the limited number of studies which examine the relationship between timing of biological maturity and PA. Results are generally inconsistent among studies. Other health-related behaviors are also considered in an effort to highlight the complexity of relationships between biological maturation and behavior and to provide future research directions.