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Jorge E. Morais, António J. Silva, Daniel A. Marinho, Vítor P. Lopes and Tiago M. Barbosa

Purpose:

To develop a performance predictor model based on swimmers’ biomechanical profile, relate the partial contribution of the main predictors with the training program, and analyze the time effect, sex effect, and time × sex interaction.

Methods:

91 swimmers (44 boys, 12.04 ± 0.81 y; 47 girls, 11.22 ± 0.98 y) evaluated during a 3-y period. The decimal age and anthropometric, kinematic, and efficiency features were collected 10 different times over 3 seasons (ie, longitudinal research). Hierarchical linear modeling was the procedure used to estimate the performance predictors.

Results:

Performance improved between season 1 early and season 3 late for both sexes (boys 26.9% [20.88;32.96], girls 16.1% [10.34;22.54]). Decimal age (estimate [EST] –2.05, P < .001), arm span (EST –0.59, P < .001), stroke length (EST 3.82; P = .002), and propelling efficiency (EST –0.17, P = .001) were entered in the final model.

Conclusion:

Over 3 consecutive seasons young swimmers’ performance improved. Performance is a multifactorial phenomenon where anthropometrics, kinematics, and efficiency were the main determinants. The change of these factors over time was coupled with the training plans of this talent identification and development program.

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Gerold Sattlecker, Michael Buchecker, Christoph Gressenbauer, Erich Müller and Stefan J. Lindinger

Purpose:

To identify biomechanical predictors that distinguish between high- and low-score athletes in biathlon shooting and to determine the relationships among these variables in field testing.

Methods:

Twenty-two biathletes (8 female, 14 male) from the World Cup, the European Cup, and a federal youth squad each fired 3 clips of 5 shots in prone and standing shooting positions without physical load, followed by 2 respective series in both disciplines during a simulated 12.5-km pursuit race on roller skis. Biomechanical variables describing triggering, rifle force in the back shoulder, and body and rifle sway were calculated over the last 0.5 second before firing. For computed linear discriminant analyses, subjects were divided into high- and low-level performers based on mean scores for each condition separately. In addition, correlations among all biomechanical factors were calculated.

Results:

Regarding prone shooting, shoulder force in the rest condition and vertical rifle sway in the race simulation were shown to be main discriminators. Several body- and rifle-sway variables were found to be predictors in standing rest shooting. Body sway across the shooting line discriminated the groups in the standing race situation tendentially. Thus, the main performance predictors changed due to fatigue. Correlations between triggering and rifle sway, shoulder force and rifle sway, and body sway and rifle sway were discovered.

Conclusions:

Referring to the current results, athletes are recommended to focus on vertical rifle sway in prone position and on body sway across the shooting line during standing shooting when fatigued.

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Max R. Paquette and Daniel A. Melcher

, Mullineaux DR , Milner CE , Hamill J , Davis IS . Biomechanical predictors of retrospective tibial stress fractures in runners . J Biomech . 2008 ; 41 ( 6 ): 1160 – 1165 . PubMed doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2008.02.001 18377913 8. Kuhman DJ , Paquette MR , Peel SA , Melcher DA

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Michelle R. Tanel, Tyler B. Weaver and Andrew C. Laing

.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.01.019 24613374 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.01.019 34. Graham DF , Carty CP , Lloyd DG , Barrett RS . Biomechanical predictors of maximal balance recovery performance amongst community-dwelling older adults . Exp Gerontol . 2015 ; 66 , 39 – 46 . PubMed ID: 25871728 doi:10

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Ece Acar, Tamer Çankaya and Serkan Öner

.S. ( 2015 ). Biomechanical predictors of maximal balance recovery performance amongst community-dwelling older adults . Experimental Gerontology, 66, 39 – 46 . 10.1016/j.exger.2015.04.006 Granacher , U. , Gollhofer , A. , Hortobágyi , T. , Kressig , R.W. , & Muehlbauer , T. ( 2013 ). The

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Ilha G. Fernandes, Matheus A. Souza, Matheus L. Oliveira, Bianca Miarka, Michelle A. Barbosa, Andreia C. Queiroz and Alexandre C. Barbosa

.G. , & Barrett , R.S. ( 2015 ). Biomechanical predictors of maximal balance recovery performance amongst community-dwelling older adults . Experimental Gerontology, 66 , 39 – 46 . PubMed ID: 25871728 doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2015.04.006 Hamada , T. , Sale , D.G. , MacDougall , J.D. , & Tarnopolsky

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Michelle A. Sandrey, Yu-Jen Chang and Jean L. McCrory

Biomed Eng . 2000 ; 28 : 463 – 469 . PubMed ID: 10870903 doi: 10.1114/1.284 33. Pohl MB , Mullineaux DR , Milner CE , Hamill J , Davis IS . Biomechanical predictors of retrospective tibial stress fractures in runners . J Biomech . 2008 ; 41 : 1160 – 1165 . PubMed ID: 18377913 doi