The purpose of this study was to examine parents’ supportive attitudes toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) coaches, as well as the sources of that support. The authors drew from the model of dual attitudes and a multilevel framework developed for the study to guide the analyses. Interviews were conducted with 10 parents who lived in the southwest United States. Analysis of the data revealed three different types of support: indifference, qualified support, and unequivocal support. Further analyses provided evidence of multilevel factors affecting the support, including those at the macro-level (religion), the meso-level (parental influences and contact with sexual minorities), and the micro-level (affective and cognitive influences) of analysis. Theoretical implications and contributions of the study are discussed.
George Cunningham and E. Nicole Melton
George B. Cunningham and Nicole Melton
In drawing from Herek’s (2007, 2009) sexual stigma and prejudice theory, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among prejudice toward sexual minority coaches, religious fundamentalism, sexism, and sexual prejudice and to determine whether race affected these relationships. The authors collected data from 238 parents. Results indicated that Asians expressed greater sexual prejudice than Latinos and Whites, while African Americans expressed more religious fundamentalism than did Whites. There were also differences in the associations among the variables. For African Americans, sexism held the strongest association with prejudice toward sexual minority coaches. While for Asians and Whites, religious fundamentalism held the strongest association, contact with lesbian and gay friends was a significant predictor of prejudice for Asians, but not for the other groups. For Latinos, both religious fundamentalism and sexism were associated with sexual prejudice. The authors discuss the results in terms of theoretical and practical implications.
George B. Cunningham and Calvin Nite
In 2019, the Atlanta Hawks (of the National Basketball Association; NBA) hosted a “Love Wins” night, with a focus on the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community ( Evans, 2019 ). Activities included lighting portions of the outside of the arena to create a rainbow effect. The
Shannon S.C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan
these “isms” for people belonging to minority groups in a society that favors the “majority” ( Meyer, 2003 ) or those in positions of power. It is well documented that individuals who belong to LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, etc.) communities experience LGBTQ+-specific minority
Shannon S. C. Herrick and Lindsay R. Duncan
It is well documented that individuals with minority sexual orientations and minority gender identities [ie, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, etc (LGBTQ+)] experience discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization on a variety of institutional and personal levels. 1 , 2 The
Emily A. Roper and Katherine M. Polasek
While researchers have explored the experiences of gay and lesbian sport participants competing and participating in alternative sport structures, no research has examined gay men, lesbians, bisexual (GLB) and heterosexual individuals’ experiences sharing an alternative space. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore the experiences and perceptions of being a member of, and participating in a “predominately gay” fitness facility Interviews with 13 members and one member of management suggested that while the predominately gay fitness facility was a site in which working out was a primary focus for all of the participants, the space was used as a way to connect with the gay community (among the GLB participants) and become invisible for the women (heterosexual, lesbian, and bisexual). The results also suggested that the heterosexual participants, while “comfortable” working out in a predominately gay fitness setting, described a temporary occupation of the space.
Barbara Ravel and Geneviéve Rail
Several studies on the experiences of nonheterosexual women in sport have highlighted the development of lesbian subcultures in sport, while others have emphasized the scarcity of athletic contexts embracing sexual diversity. This article explores the narratives of 14 young Francophone sportswomen positioning themselves as “gaie,” lesbian, bisexual, or refusing labels altogether. Using a feminist poststructuralist perspective, we examine their discursive constructions of sport and argue that the discourses articulated in sport allow for the creation of a space of resistance to heteronormativity. We suggest that the sport space is constructed as a “gaie” space within which a normalizing version of lesbian sexuality is proposed. We investigate how in/ex/clusion discourses are inscribed in space and how subjects are impacted by and, in turn, impact these discourses.
This article offers a review of the sociology of sport research on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) subjects with the aim of analyzing the extent to which this work is participating in the mainstreaming of LGBTQ sexual politics. In identifying points of convergence between “homonormativity” (Duggan, 2003) and research in the sociology of sport, the essay highlights the limitations of scholarship that equates visibility and identity with power and legitimacy; argues for studies that critically interrogate, rather than reproduce, White bourgeois normativity; and advocates for writing that is not nationally bound and insular, but rather intimately engaged with the geopolitical urgencies of our time. Based on an overview of five key features of queer theory, the author argues that a more robust queer approach to research on sexuality is required if sociologists of sport are to avoid colluding with the exclusionary discourses that characterize homonormativity.
Austin Stair Calhoun, Nicole M. LaVoi and Alicia Johnson
Sport scholars have connected heteronormativity and heterosexism to the creation of privilege for the dominant group. They also contend that the coverage and framing of female athletes and coaches promote heteronormativity across print, broadcast, and new media. To date, research examining heteronormativity and heterosexism on university-sponsored athletics Web sites is scarce. Using framing theory, online biographies of NCAA intercollegiate head coaches of 12 conferences (N = 1,902) were examined for textual representations of heteronormativity and heterosexism. Biographies were coded based on the presence or absence of personal text—and the presence or absence of family narratives. The data demonstrate a near absence of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered coaches, suggesting that digital content of intercollegiate athletic department Web sites reproduces dominant gender ideologies and is plagued by homophobia in overt and subtle ways.
Michael Price and Andrew Parker
This paper presents findings from an ethnographic study of a UK-based amateur rugby union club for gay and bisexual men. Positioning the club at the centre of the research, heterosexist definitions of sport are analysed with regard to their effect on the lives of players and the continued existence of the club itself. The standpoint of team members in relation to dominant hegemonic forces in sport is explored through an examination of the sexual politics of the club and the possibility for iterative challenges to gender norms within this particular sporting context. The central findings indicate that the club inadvertently promoted a liberal image towards dominant heterosexual sporting norms and, in this sense, co-opted into mainstream rugby culture.