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Paraskevi Giagazoglou, Athanasios Katis, Eleftherios Kellis and Christos Natsikas

The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p < .05) ball speed velocities (20.81m/sec) and ball/foot speed ratio values (1.35) for soccer players who were blind during the static kick compared with sighted players (16.16m/sec and 1.23, respectively). Significant group effect on shank and foot angular velocity was observed during the static kicking condition (p < .05), while no differences were found during the dynamic kicking condition (p > .05). Despite the absence of vision, systematic training could have beneficial effects on technical skills, allowing athletes who are blind to develop skill levels comparable to sighted athletes.

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Justin A. Haegele and T. Nicole Kirk

studies. First, regardless of educational setting (e.g., integrated physical education vs. residential school for the blind), social dynamics among peers in physical education environments tend to be dictated by perceptions of able and unable bodies ( de Schipper et al., 2017 ; Haegele et al., 2017a

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Andrew G. Wood, Jamie B. Barker, Martin Turner and Peter Thomson

-kick simulation for an elite blind soccer player presents a significant activating event. In elite blind soccer, penalty kicks are awarded to the opposing team after accruing five team fouls. Penalty-kick importance is escalated during the knockout stages of major international tournaments if the game ends in a

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Kamila Grandolfi, Vandre Sosciarelli and Marcos Polito

single 1RM test, as there seems to be high reliability when compared with repeated tests. 5 , 6 However, regardless of the training status of the subjects, the methodological quality of the study design suggests blinding of several variables. 7 In studies involving exercise training, it is not possible

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Gisela Kobberling, Louis W. Jankowski and Luc Leger

The oxygen consumption (VO2) of 30 (10 females, 20 males) legally blind adolescents and their sighted controls were compared for treadmill walking (3 mph, 4.8 km/h) and running (6 mph, 9.6 km/h). The VO2 of the visually impaired subjects averaged 24.4% and 10.8% higher than those of their same-sex age-matched controls, and 42.8% and 11.2% higher than the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) norms for walking (p<.01) and running (p<.05), respectively. The normal association between aerobic capacity and locomotor energy costs was evident among the sighted controls (r= .44, p<.05) but insignificant (r=.35, p>.05) for the visually impaired subjects. The energy costs of both walking and running were highest among the totally blind subjects, and decreased toward normal as a function of residual vision among the legally blind subjects. The energy costs of walking and running for blind adolescents are higher than both those of sighted controls and the ACSM norm values.

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Karinna Sonálya Aires da Costa, Daniel Tezoni Borges, Liane de Brito Macedo, Caio Alano de Almeida Lins and Jamilson Simões Brasileiro

would increase the neuromuscular performance as well as reduce postural oscillation in individuals subjected to ACL reconstruction. Methods Design This is a blinded randomized controlled trial. Participants The study sample consisted of 48 men (mean age: 27.4 [6.2] y; body mass index: 26.8 [3.8] kg/m 2

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Ufuk Ersoy, Umut Ziya Kocak, Ezgi Unuvar and Bayram Unver

young individuals. Methods Design This study was designed as being randomized controlled and single blinded. Participants The students from the School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, Dokuz Eylül University participated in this study. A history of previous surgery/trauma on the lower

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Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Parisa Alaei, Soofia Naghdi, Zahra Fakhari, Shiva Komesh and Jan Dommerholt

Sciences (TUMS), used a pretest–posttest, and single-blinded design. Three measurements were performed at baseline, immediately after DN, and 15 minutes after the end of the DN. The 15-minute retest was selected to assess the short-term effects of DN required for an athlete’s performance in a single match

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Stephanie J. Hanrahan, J. Robert Grove and Richard J. Lockwood

This paper presents the development and implementation of a psychological skills training program for blind athletes. The structure of the program was based on the personal accounts of successful athletes and the results of studies using sighted athletes. Skills designed to give insight to the body/mind relationship, raise or lower arousal levels, maintain motivation, prepare for competition, and improve problem-solving abilities were introduced to the athletes. Participants completed a self-assessment of psychological skills to determine the skill areas they had strengths in and therefore should take advantage of as well as those mental skill areas in which they could improve. A qualitative evaluation of the program is presented and recommendations for future programs are discussed. Overall, few changes were needed to accommodate for the athletes’ visual impairments.

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Claudine Sherrill, Wanda Rainbolt and Sandra Ervin

Thirty blind adults, ages 16 to 50 years, were interviewed concerning their attitudes toward physical education and recreation in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood and the variables which may have contributed to these feelings. The tape recorded responses to 22 open-ended questions were transcribed and subsequently rated as positive or negative by three judges. Significant z values (p < .05) between positive and negative responses were obtained for 16 of the 22 questions. Attitudes toward school-based experiences were positive whereas attitudes toward neighborhood, community, church, and family experiences were negative. A two-way analysis of variance revealed no significant differences in attitudes by school placement (residential vs. public). Males had significantly more positive attitudes toward physical education and recreation than females.