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Paraskevi Giagazoglou, Athanasios Katis, Eleftherios Kellis, and Christos Natsikas

The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p < .05) ball speed velocities (20.81m/sec) and ball/foot speed ratio values (1.35) for soccer players who were blind during the static kick compared with sighted players (16.16m/sec and 1.23, respectively). Significant group effect on shank and foot angular velocity was observed during the static kicking condition (p < .05), while no differences were found during the dynamic kicking condition (p > .05). Despite the absence of vision, systematic training could have beneficial effects on technical skills, allowing athletes who are blind to develop skill levels comparable to sighted athletes.

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Justin A. Haegele and T. Nicole Kirk

studies. First, regardless of educational setting (e.g., integrated physical education vs. residential school for the blind), social dynamics among peers in physical education environments tend to be dictated by perceptions of able and unable bodies ( de Schipper et al., 2017 ; Haegele et al., 2017a

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Ric Lovell, Sam Halley, Jason Siegler, Tony Wignell, Aaron J. Coutts, and Tim Massard

numerically blinded RPE (RPE blind ) scales, 15 – 17 a method in which the athlete uses a touch screen to record their rating, with the associated numerical value undisclosed. While this technique has conceptual value, to our knowledge, its validity has not yet been evaluated. Hence, the purpose of this

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Andrew G. Wood, Jamie B. Barker, Martin Turner, and Peter Thomson

-kick simulation for an elite blind soccer player presents a significant activating event. In elite blind soccer, penalty kicks are awarded to the opposing team after accruing five team fouls. Penalty-kick importance is escalated during the knockout stages of major international tournaments if the game ends in a

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Alexandra Stribing, Adam Pennell, Emily N. Gilbert, Lauren J. Lieberman, and Ali Brian

Approximately 56,000 children and adolescents in the United States experience visual impairments (VI), to a varying degree, which may include blindness in an educational setting ( American Foundation for the Blind, 2017 ; American Printing House for the Blind, 2018 ). Individuals with VI are 1

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Kamila Grandolfi, Vandre Sosciarelli, and Marcos Polito

single 1RM test, as there seems to be high reliability when compared with repeated tests. 5 , 6 However, regardless of the training status of the subjects, the methodological quality of the study design suggests blinding of several variables. 7 In studies involving exercise training, it is not possible

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Katherine Holland, Justin A. Haegele, and Xihe Zhu

instruction, when learning how to run ( Wagner et al., 2013 ). Because of the nature of visual impairment, access to these visual models is restricted for this population, particularly those with complete blindness. Given that running is a fundamental movement skill ( Protheroe et al., 2018 ) that becomes a

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Justin A. Haegele, Carrie J. Aigner, and Sean Healy

children (aged 6–12 years) and adolescents (aged 13–17 years) with and without VIs. Participants with VIs were identified as those whose parents answered “yes” to the following question: “Does this child have any of the following: Blindness or problems with seeing, even when wearing glasses?” Those who

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Gisela Kobberling, Louis W. Jankowski, and Luc Leger

The oxygen consumption (VO2) of 30 (10 females, 20 males) legally blind adolescents and their sighted controls were compared for treadmill walking (3 mph, 4.8 km/h) and running (6 mph, 9.6 km/h). The VO2 of the visually impaired subjects averaged 24.4% and 10.8% higher than those of their same-sex age-matched controls, and 42.8% and 11.2% higher than the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) norms for walking (p<.01) and running (p<.05), respectively. The normal association between aerobic capacity and locomotor energy costs was evident among the sighted controls (r= .44, p<.05) but insignificant (r=.35, p>.05) for the visually impaired subjects. The energy costs of both walking and running were highest among the totally blind subjects, and decreased toward normal as a function of residual vision among the legally blind subjects. The energy costs of walking and running for blind adolescents are higher than both those of sighted controls and the ACSM norm values.

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Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley, and Sara Santarossa

for this sample fits into the normal weight range ( World Health Organization, 2006 ). The United States Association for Blind Athletes classification scale served as the visual impairment classification system and incorporates four levels (B1, B2, B3, and B4). B1 includes no light perception in