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Lars R. McNaughton, Steve Kenney, Jason Siegler, Adrian W. Midgley, Ric J. Lovell and David J. Bentley

Context:

Recently, superoxygenated-water beverages have emerged as a new purported ergogenic substance.

Purpose:

This study aimed to determine the effects of superoxygenated water on submaximal endurance performance.

Methods:

Eleven active male subjects, VO2max 52.6 ± 4.8 mL · kg−1 · min−1, height 180.0 ± 2.0 cm, weight 76.0 ± 7.0 kg, age 24 ± 1.0 y (mean ± SD), completed a 45-min cycle-ergometry exercise test at 70% of their previously predicted maximal power output with a 10-min rest period, followed by a 15-min time trial (TT). Thirty minutes before the exercise test subjects consumed 15 mL of either superoxygenated water (E) or placebo (P; water mixed with low-chlorine solution). Subjects then completed the test again a week later for the other condition (double-blind, randomized). The physiological variables measured during exercise were VO2, VCO2, respiratory-exchange ratio (RER), VE, PO2, PCO2, blood lactate (bLa–), and heart rate (HR). Mean distance covered and the average power output for the 15-min TT were also measured as performance indicators.

Results:

There were no significant differences in VO2, VCO2, RER, VE, bLa, PO2, and HR (P > .05) during the exercise tests. Neither were there any significant improvements in the total distance covered (P 9.01 ± 0.74 km vs E 8.96 ± 0.68 km, P > .05) or the average power output (P 186.7 ± 35.8 W vs E 179.0 ± 25.9 W, P > .05) during the 15-min TT.

Conclusion:

Based on these results the authors conclude that consuming 15 mL of superoxygenated water does not enhance submaximal or maximal TT cycling performance.

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Billy Sperlich, Dennis-Peter Born, Christoph Zinner, Anna Hauser and Hans-Christer Holmberg

Purpose:

To evaluate whether upper-body compression affects power output and selected metabolic, cardiorespiratory, hemodynamic, and perceptual responses during three 3-min sessions of double-poling (DP) sprint.

Method:

Ten well-trained male athletes (25 ± 4 y, 180 ± 4 cm, 74.6 ± 3.2 kg) performed such sprints on a DP ski ergometer with and without a long-sleeved compression garment.

Result:

Mean power output was not affected by such compression (216 ± 25 W in both cases; P = 1.00, effect size [ES] = 0.00), although blood lactate concentration was lowered (P < .05, ES = 0.50–1.02). Blood gases (ES = 0.07–0.50), oxygen uptake (ES = 0.04–0.28), production of carbon dioxide (ES = 0.01–0.46), heart rate (ES = 0.00–0.21), stroke volume (ES = 0.33–0.81), and cardiac output (ES = 0.20–0.91) were also all unaffected by upper-body compression (best P = 1.00). This was also the case for changes in the tissue saturation index (ES = 0.45–1.17) and total blood content of hemoglobin (ES = 0.09–0.85), as well as ratings of perceived exertion (ES = 0.15–0.88; best P = .96).

Conclusion:

The authors conclude that the performance of well-trained athletes during 3 × 3-min DP sprints will not be enhanced by upper-body compression.

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Stacie L. Wing-Gaia, Andrew W. Subudhi and Eldon W. Askew

The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of purified oxygenated water on exercise performance under hypoxic conditions. Nine recreational male cyclists (age = 26.6 ± 5.2 y, weight = 87.6 ± 19.5 kg, VO2peak = 46.5 ± 5.9 mL · kg−1 · min−1) completed two 600 kJ cycling time trials under hypoxic conditions (FIO2 = 13.6% O2, Pbar = 641 mmHg) separated by 2 wk. Trials were completed following 3 d ingestion of 35 mL · kg−1 · d−1 of control (CON) or experimental (EXP) water. Time to completion, heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), pulse oximetry (SaO2), blood gases (PcO2 and PcCO2), and lactate were measured during the trials. Hydration was assessed with pre- and post-exercise body weight and 24-h urine specific gravity. Performance, hydration, and blood oxygenation were unaffected by EXP water. Results of this study suggest that purified oxygenated water does not improve exercise performance in moderately active males.

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Shona L. Halson, Marc J. Quod, David T. Martin, Andrew S. Gardner, Tammie R. Ebert and Paul B. Laursen

Cold water immersion (CWI) has become a popular means of enhancing recovery from various forms of exercise. However, there is minimal scientific information on the physiological effects of CWI following cycling in the heat.

Purpose:

To examine the safety and acute thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, metabolic, endocrine, and inflammatory responses to CWI following cycling in the heat.

Methods:

Eleven male endurance trained cyclists completed two simulated ~40-min time trials at 34.3 ± 1.1°C. All subjects completed both a CWI trial (11.5°C for 60 s repeated three times) and a control condition (CONT; passive recovery in 24.2 ± 1.8°C) in a randomized cross-over design. Capillary blood samples were assayed for lactate, glucose, pH, and blood gases. Venous blood samples were assayed for catecholamines, cortisol, testosterone, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, IL-6, and IGF-1 on 7 of the 11 subjects. Heart rate (HR), rectal (Tre), and skin temperatures (Tsk) were measured throughout recovery.

Results:

CWI elicited a significantly lower HR (CWI: Δ116 ± 9 bpm vs. CONT: Δ106 ± 4 bpm; P = .02), Tre (CWI: Δ1.99 ± 0.50°C vs. CONT: Δ1.49 ± 0.50°C; P = .01) and Tsk. However, all other measures were not significantly different between conditions. All participants subjectively reported enhanced sensations of recovery following CWI.

Conclusion:

CWI did not result in hypothermia and can be considered safe following high intensity cycling in the heat, using the above protocol. CWI significantly reduced heart rate and core temperature; however, all other metabolic and endocrine markers were not affected by CWI.

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer, Lukas Höllrigl, Christian Raschner and Wolfgang Schobersberger

ear lobe and analyzed immediately with an ABL 80 Flex CO-OX (Drott Medizintechnik GmbH, Wiener Neudorf, Austria) blood gas analyzer. We analyzed the samples in normoxia at a temperature of about 20°C. The analyzed parameters included partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2 ), oxygen saturation (SaO 2

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David Morawetz, Tobias Dünnwald, Martin Faulhaber, Hannes Gatterer and Wolfgang Schobersberger

and analyzed immediately with a RAPID Point 500 (Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany) blood gas analyzer. Subjects were instructed to wear wool gloves during the 60-minute passive adaptation period, so that the hands were warm and blood flow in the fingers was increased. Samples were analyzed

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Paolo T. Pianosi

air required by exercising muscle and to eliminate CO 2 produced from fuel oxidation by these same muscles. Ergo, it is closely tied to metabolism ( 9 ) and is regulated to maintain (in absence of lung disease) more or less normal arterial blood gas tensions ( 17 ). One can increase breathing

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Scott Cocking, Mathew G. Wilson, David Nichols, N. Timothy Cable, Daniel J. Green, Dick H. J. Thijssen and Helen Jones

Microtainer® Contact-Activated Lancet) after administration of a disposable sterile isopropyl alcohol swab (China Meheco Co, Ltd). Blood was collected into a sodium-heparinized blood-gas capillary tube (Marienfeld Superior, Germany) and immediately analyzed in duplicate (ABL90 Flex, Radiometer Medical ApS

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

after warm-up, immediately after the uphill TT, and 3 and 5 minutes after testing. Blood Processing Blood samples were collected into heparinized capillary tubes (1 mL) and immediately analyzed using a blood-gas analyzer (ABL 77, Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Acid-base variables such as pH

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Mynor Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jeffrey S. Martin, David D. Pascoe, Michael D. Roberts and Danielle W. Wadsworth

arterial glucose levels determined by blood gas analyzer has been demonstrated by Brunner et al. 27 Along with the CGM, a point-of-care glucose meter (Contour next link, Bayer HealthCare LLC), accuracy (99.40% [95% confidence interval, 98.95%–99.65%]), 28 was used to measure glucose via capillary sampling