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Young-Shin Lee and Susan S. Levy


To examine physical activity (PA) in multiple contexts (household, walking, and leisure-time PA) and blood pressure (BP) across gender and income among older adults living independently.


A convenience sample of 372 older adults completed 2 BP measurements and PA questionnaires.


Older adults with high incomes (≥$30,000) engaged in less household activity, more leisure time PA and better controlled their BP than those with low incomes (<$30,000). Men walked more than women. Older women in the low-income group had less controlled BP than those women in the high-income group. Participants with normal or controlled BP were engaged in more household and walking activities than those with uncontrolled BP.


Findings suggest that older men and women at high or low-income levels have different mode of PA and BP management that should be considered for intervention strategies.

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Heather Hayes Betz, Joey C. Eisenmann, Kelly R. Laurson, Katrina D. DuBose, Mathew J. Reeves, Joseph J. Carlson and Karin A. Pfeiffer

The development of atherosclerotic plaque as a precursor of cardiovascular disease has been well established ( 40 ), and autopsy studies ( 25 , 29 ) have shown this process begins during childhood. Blood pressure is a recognized causal risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, and

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Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mark Tremblay, Andreia Pelegrini, Roberto Jeronimo dos Santos Silva, Antonio Cesar Cabral de Oliveira and Edio Luiz Petroski


Criterion-referenced cut-points for health-related fitness measures are lacking. This study aimed to determine the associations between aerobic fitness and high blood pressure levels (HBP) to determine the cut-points that best predict HBP among adolescents.


This cross-sectional school-based study with sample of 875 adolescents aged 14–19 years was conducted in southern Brazil. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured by the oscillometric method with a digital sphygmomanometer. Analyses controlled for sociodemographic variables, physical activity, body mass and biological maturation.


Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that mCAFT measures could discriminate HBP in both sexes (female: AUC = 0.70; male: AUC = 0.63). The cut-points with the best discriminatory power for HBP were 32 mL·kg-1·min-1 for females and 40 mL·kg-1·min-1 for males. Females (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 2.1, 33.7) and males (OR: 2.5; CI 95%: 1.2, 5.2) with low aerobic fitness levels were more likely to have HBP.


mCAFT measures are inversely associated with BP and cut-points from ROC analyses have good discriminatory power for HBP.

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Emma Weston, Matthew Nagy, Tiwaloluwa A. Ajibewa, Molly O’Sullivan, Shannon Block and Rebecca E. Hasson

, thickening of the carotid vessel wall, and even subtle changes in cognition, are detectable in children with increased blood pressure (BP) ( 18 ). More importantly, cardiovascular risk factors track from childhood to adulthood, hence developing more effective strategies to reduce hypertension has both

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Amanda Zaleski, Beth Taylor, Braden Armstrong, Michael Puglisi, Priscilla Clarkson, Stuart Chipkin, Charles Michael White, Paul D. Thompson and Linda S. Pescatello

Hypertension, now defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg, is the most common, costly, and modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor in the United States and world. Hypertension affects 103 million or ∼46% of Americans ( Muntner et

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Bruce S. Alpert and Jack H. Wilmore

This paper reviewed the available research literature to determine the role of exercise training in reducing resting blood pressure in adolescents. Similar to the adult population, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of exercise training for reducing resting blood pressure in normotensive adolescents, although several studies reported small decreases in either or both systolic and diastolic pressure. In hypertensive adolescents, aerobic-type exercise training consistently reduced both systolic and diastolic pressure, but seldom to completely normal levels. Resistance training has not been studied as extensively, but may be of some benefit. It is recommended that chronic aerobic and strength activities be part of an overall health maintenance program.

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Thiago Correa Porto Gonçalves, Atila Alexandre Trapé, Jhennyfer Aline Lima Rodrigues, Simone Sakagute Tavares and Carlos Roberto Bueno Junior

of multicomponent training resulted in an increase in NO and antioxidant capacity and a decrease in blood pressure (BP) in women aged between 50 and 80 years; however, these results seem to be associated with the nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) genotypes and haplotypes ( Trapé et al., 2017

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Frank A. Treiber, Francis McCaffrey, William B. Strong, Harry Davis and Tom Baranowski

This study compared blood pressure and heart rate measurements provided by the Quinton 410 automated exercise monitor with simultaneous auscultatory and electrocardiograph readings during rest, postural change, immediately after each treadmill exercise workload, and during active recovery in a sample of young children (mean age 7.9 yrs). The Quinton 410 provided highly accurate heart rates under all conditions (average mean difference <1.0 bpm). The Quinton systolic readings correlated well with and were similar to auscultation across conditions except for the initial treadmill workload. Slightly weaker relationships were observed between the Quinton and K4 diastolic comparisons. Compared with K4 auscultatory readings, the Quinton 410 provided slightly lower diastolic pressures across conditions (average mean difference = 3.1 mmHg). These findings provide preliminary evidence that for group comparisons with children, the Quinton 410 provides acceptable blood pressure estimates resulting from a variety of events, including exercise.

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Sandra K. Knecht, Wayne A. Mays, Yvette M. Gerdes, Randal P. Claytor and Timothy K. Knilans

The aim of this study was to provide a normal reference for arm–leg blood pressure gradients in normal pediatric and young-adult patients before and after exercise. We assessed 216 normal participants by physical or echocardiographic exam, maximally tested using the James Cycle Protocol, with arm and leg blood pressures taken pre- and postexercise. Arm–leg gradients significantly increased from –5 mmHg at rest to 4, 2, and 1 mmHg 1, 3, and 4 min postexercise (p < .05). There was a small, statistically significant increase in arm-leg blood pressure with exercise, which is probably clinically insignificant. These data serve as a normal reference.

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George A. Kelley and Kristi S. Kelley

The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of exercise on resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents. Twenty-five studies that included 84 groups (45 exercise, 39 control) and 3,189 subjects (1,885 exercise, 1,304 control) met the criteria for inclusion. Using a random effects model, non-significant decreases of approximately 2% were found for resting systolic (mean – SEM, –2 – 1 mmHg, 95% CI, –4 to 1 mmHg) and diastolic (mean – SEM, –1 – 1 mmHg, 95% CI, –3 to 1 mmHg) blood pressure. Greater decreases in resting systolic blood pressure were found for nonrandomized versus randomized controlled trials (p = 0.001). There was also a statistically significant association between changes in resting systolic blood pressure and initial blood pressure (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and body weight (r = 0.64, p < 0.001). However, when limited to randomized trials, these results were no longer statistically significant. The results of this study suggest that exercise does not reduce resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure in children and adolescents. However, a need exists for additional randomized controlled trials, especially among hypertensive children and adolescents.