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Luana Farias de Oliveira, Bryan Saunders, and Guilherme Giannini Artioli

Sodium bicarbonate (SB) is an ergogenic supplement used to increase blood bicarbonate concentration, buffering capacity and, subsequently, high-intensity exercise capacity and performance ( McNaughton et al., 2016 ). There is a body of evidence indicating that SB is an effective ergogenic

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David M. Morris, Rebecca S. Shafer, Kimberly R. Fairbrother, and Mark W. Woodall

The authors sought to determine the effects of oral lactate consumption on blood bicarbonate (HCO3−) levels, pH levels, and performance during high-intensity exercise on a cycle ergometer. Subjects (N = 11) were trained male and female cyclists. Time to exhaustion (TTE) and total work were measured during high-intensity exercise bouts 80 min after the consumption of 120 mg/kg body mass of lactate (L), an equal volume of placebo (PL), or no treatment (NT). Blood HCO3− increased significantly after ingestion of lactate (p < .05) but was not affected in PL or NT (p > .05). No changes in pH were observed as a result of treatment. TTE and total work during the performance test increased significantly by 17% in L compared with PL and NT (p = .02). No significant differences in TTE and total work were seen between the PL and NT protocols (p = .85). The authors conclude that consuming 120 mg/kg body mass of lactate increases HCO3− levels and increases exercise performance during high-intensity cycling ergometry to exhaustion.

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Michael J. Price and Malkit Singh

This study examined the increase in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration after ingestion of a standard sodium bicarbonate solution. Peak blood pH and bicarbonate concentration occurred between 60 and 90 minutes. Values decreased over the remainder of the ingestion period although still elevated above preingestion levels.

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Rebecca L. Jones, Trent Stellingwerff, Paul Swinton, Guilherme Giannini Artioli, Bryan Saunders, and Craig Sale

) ingestion increases the concentration of blood bicarbonate, leading to a greater efflux of H + and lactate anions out of the skeletal muscle, which can be beneficial to high-intensity (HI; ∼2–10 min) performance ( Carr et al., 2011 ; Christensen et al., 2017 ). Ingestion of SB prior to HI exercise has a

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Nathan Philip Hilton, Nicholas Keith Leach, Melissa May Craig, S. Andy Sparks, and Lars Robert McNaughton

, which in turn, may reduce changes in blood bicarbonate. These considerations suggest that bioavailability may be complex; one factor relates to GI transit time, whereas another relates to the degree of neutralization. Therefore, bioavailability is dependent upon the balance between bicarbonate loss

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Peter M. Christensen and Jens Bangsbo


To evaluate the influence of warm-up exercise intensity and subsequent recovery on intense endurance performance, selected blood variables, and the oxygen-uptake (VO2) response.


Twelve highly trained male cyclists (VO2max 72.4 ± 8.0 mL · min−1 · kg−1, incremental-test peak power output (iPPO) 432 ± 31 W; mean ± SD) performed 3 warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal-performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate-intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive high-intensity exercise (10–100%iPPO and 2 × 20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6 min (HI6) or 20 min (HI20).


Before PT venous pH was lower (P < .001) in HI6 (7.27 ± 0.05) than in HI20 (7.34 ± 0.04) and MOD6 (7.35 ± 0.03). At the same time, differences (P < .001) existed for venous lactate in HI6 (8.2 ± 2.0 mmol/L), HI20 (5.1 ± 1.7 mmol/L), and MOD6 (1.4 ± 0.4 mmol/L), as well as for venous bicarbonate in HI6 (19.3 ± 2.6 mmol/L), HI20 (22.6 ± 2.3 mmol/L), and MOD6 (26.0 ± 1.4 mmol/L). Mean power in PT in HI6 (402 ± 38 W) tended to be lower (P = .11) than in HI20 (409 ± 34 W) and was lower (P = .007) than in MOD6 (416 ± 32 W). Total VO2 (15–120 s in PT) was higher in HI6 (8.18 ± 0.86 L) than in HI20 (7.85 ± 0.82 L, P = .008) and MOD6 (7.90 ± 0.74 L, P = .012).


Warm-up exercise including race-pace and sprint intervals combined with short recovery can reduce subsequent performance in a 4-min maximal test in highly trained cyclists. Thus, a reduced time at high exercise intensity, a reduced intensity in the warm-up, or an extension of the recovery period after an intense warm-up is advocated.

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William H. Gurton, Steve H. Faulkner, and Ruth M. James

elevating circulating blood bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) ∼5 to 6 mmol·L −1 above baseline, 4 which promotes greater efflux of H + from the muscle, in turn protecting against declining intramuscular pH. 5 NaHCO 3 ingestion also elevates strong ion difference (SID) by ∼15%, 6 , 7 subsequently allowing for

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Anna E. Voskamp, Senna van den Bos, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, and Dionne A. Noordhof

): 34 . doi:10.1186/s40798-017-0101-4 28936625 10.1186/s40798-017-0101-4 17. Gough LA , Deb SK , Sparks SA , McNaughton LR . Sodium bicarbonate improves 4 km time trial cycling performance when individualised to time to peak blood bicarbonate in trained male cyclists . J Sports Sci . 2018

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Tue A.H. Lassen, Lars Lindstrøm, Simon Lønbro, and Klavs Madsen

of the Central Denmark Region (N-1-10-72-226-17). Experimental Protocol The pretest set-up consisted of a preliminary session including a familiarization with the time-trial run (TT-run). In addition, two tests to identify individual time to peak HCO 3 − blood bicarbonate (HCO 3 − peak ) with

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Charles S. Urwin, Dan B. Dwyer, and Amelia J. Carr

Sodium citrate induces alkalosis and can provide a performance benefit in high-intensity exercise. Previous investigations have been inconsistent in the ingestion protocols used, in particular the dose and timing of ingestion before the onset of exercise. The primary aim of the current study was to quantify blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration and gastrointestinal symptoms after ingestion of three doses of sodium citrate (500 mg⋅kg-1, 700 mg⋅kg-1 and 900 mg⋅kg-1). Thirteen participants completed four experimental sessions, each consisting of a different dose of sodium citrate or a taste-matched placebo solution. Blood pH and blood bicarbonate concentration were measured at 30-min intervals via analysis of capillary blood samples. Gastrointestinal symptoms were also monitored at 30-min intervals. Statistical significance was accepted at a level of p < .05. Both measures of alkalosis were significantly greater after ingestion of sodium citrate compared with placebo (p < .001). No significant differences in alkalosis were found between the three sodium citrate doses (p > .05). Peak alkalosis following sodium citrate ingestion ranged from 180 to 212 min after ingestion. Gastrointestinal symptoms were significantly higher after sodium citrate ingestion compared with placebo (p < .001), while the 900 dose elicited significantly greater gastrointestinal distress than 500 mg⋅kg-1 (p = .004). It is recommended that a dose of 500 mg⋅kg-1 of sodium citrate should be ingested at least 3 hr before exercise, to achieve peak alkalosis and to minimize gastrointestinal symptoms before and during exercise.