estimated to be responsible for the highest number of preventable deaths. 3 Even individuals with high–normal blood pressure (ie, 130–139/85–89 mm Hg) have hazard ratios for coronary heart disease and stroke between 1.5 and 2.0 versus those with blood pressure <120/80 mm Hg. 4 There is clear empirical
Jongbum Ko, Dalton Deprez, Keely Shaw, Jane Alcorn, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos, Corey Tomczak, Heather Foulds, and Philip D. Chilibeck
Young-Shin Lee and Susan S. Levy
To examine physical activity (PA) in multiple contexts (household, walking, and leisure-time PA) and blood pressure (BP) across gender and income among older adults living independently.
A convenience sample of 372 older adults completed 2 BP measurements and PA questionnaires.
Older adults with high incomes (≥$30,000) engaged in less household activity, more leisure time PA and better controlled their BP than those with low incomes (<$30,000). Men walked more than women. Older women in the low-income group had less controlled BP than those women in the high-income group. Participants with normal or controlled BP were engaged in more household and walking activities than those with uncontrolled BP.
Findings suggest that older men and women at high or low-income levels have different mode of PA and BP management that should be considered for intervention strategies.
Heather Hayes Betz, Joey C. Eisenmann, Kelly R. Laurson, Katrina D. DuBose, Mathew J. Reeves, Joseph J. Carlson, and Karin A. Pfeiffer
The development of atherosclerotic plaque as a precursor of cardiovascular disease has been well established ( 40 ), and autopsy studies ( 25 , 29 ) have shown this process begins during childhood. Blood pressure is a recognized causal risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, and
Diego Augusto Santos Silva, Mark Tremblay, Andreia Pelegrini, Roberto Jeronimo dos Santos Silva, Antonio Cesar Cabral de Oliveira, and Edio Luiz Petroski
Criterion-referenced cut-points for health-related fitness measures are lacking. This study aimed to determine the associations between aerobic fitness and high blood pressure levels (HBP) to determine the cut-points that best predict HBP among adolescents.
This cross-sectional school-based study with sample of 875 adolescents aged 14–19 years was conducted in southern Brazil. Aerobic fitness was assessed using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test (mCAFT). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured by the oscillometric method with a digital sphygmomanometer. Analyses controlled for sociodemographic variables, physical activity, body mass and biological maturation.
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves demonstrated that mCAFT measures could discriminate HBP in both sexes (female: AUC = 0.70; male: AUC = 0.63). The cut-points with the best discriminatory power for HBP were 32 mL·kg-1·min-1 for females and 40 mL·kg-1·min-1 for males. Females (OR = 8.4; 95% CI: 2.1, 33.7) and males (OR: 2.5; CI 95%: 1.2, 5.2) with low aerobic fitness levels were more likely to have HBP.
mCAFT measures are inversely associated with BP and cut-points from ROC analyses have good discriminatory power for HBP.
Emma Weston, Matthew Nagy, Tiwaloluwa A. Ajibewa, Molly O’Sullivan, Shannon Block, and Rebecca E. Hasson
, thickening of the carotid vessel wall, and even subtle changes in cognition, are detectable in children with increased blood pressure (BP) ( 18 ). More importantly, cardiovascular risk factors track from childhood to adulthood, hence developing more effective strategies to reduce hypertension has both
Alex S. Ribeiro, João Pedro Nunes, Karina E. Coronado, Aluísio Andrade-Lima, Leandro dos Santos, Andreo F. Aguiar, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Edilson S. Cyrino
The aging process can lead to changes in arterial stiffness, contributing to an increased left ventricular afterload via increases in the pulsatile components of systolic blood pressure (BP; Kingwell, 2002 ). Interestingly, the prevalence of this phenomenon seems to be higher among older women
Amanda Zaleski, Beth Taylor, Braden Armstrong, Michael Puglisi, Priscilla Clarkson, Stuart Chipkin, Charles Michael White, Paul D. Thompson, and Linda S. Pescatello
Hypertension, now defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥80 mmHg, is the most common, costly, and modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor in the United States and world. Hypertension affects 103 million or ∼46% of Americans ( Muntner et
Paul Mackie, Gary Crowfoot, Heidi Janssen, Elizabeth Holliday, David Dunstan, and Coralie English
Hypertension is the leading risk factor for first and recurrent stroke, 1 , 2 and approximately 1.4 billion people worldwide were living with hypertension in 2010. 3 Lifestyle interventions involving exercise as a primary component form an integral part of blood pressure management, alongside
Thaís Reichert, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Bruna Machado Barroso, Vitória de Mello Bones da Rocha, Henrique Bianchi Oliveira, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Anemarí Girardon de Azevedo, and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel
mortality ( Ezzati et al., 2005 ) and are considered to be the leading cause of death worldwide (13.5% of all deaths; Lawes, Vander Hoorn, & Rodgers, 2008 ). Therefore, controlling blood pressure (BP) levels may be fundamental to the prevention of cardiovascular events in an aging population. Regular
Bruce S. Alpert and Jack H. Wilmore
This paper reviewed the available research literature to determine the role of exercise training in reducing resting blood pressure in adolescents. Similar to the adult population, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of exercise training for reducing resting blood pressure in normotensive adolescents, although several studies reported small decreases in either or both systolic and diastolic pressure. In hypertensive adolescents, aerobic-type exercise training consistently reduced both systolic and diastolic pressure, but seldom to completely normal levels. Resistance training has not been studied as extensively, but may be of some benefit. It is recommended that chronic aerobic and strength activities be part of an overall health maintenance program.