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Francesco Campa and Stefania Toselli

), fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), percentage of FM, and body cellular mass (BCM) were determined according to the formulas of Kotler et al. 8 Bioimpedance vector analysis was carried out using the BIVA method, normalizing resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) parameters for height (H) in meters. 2 The

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Claudia D’Alessandro, Ester Morelli, Irene Evangelisti, Fabio Galetta, Ferdinando Franzoni, Donatella Lazzeri, Marina Piazza and Adamasco Cupisti

The aim of this study was to investigate the body composition and dietary intake of competitive club-level rhythmic gymnasts, who represent the larger cohort of the sport’s practitioners. Fifty-five rhythmic gymnasts and 55 nonathlete females (13–19 years of age) were seen individually to collect a dietary recall and to take anthropometric data and bioelectric-impedance analysis. Gymnasts had lower body-mass index and lesser skinfold thickness, although middle arm-muscle circumference was similar in the 2 groups. Gymnasts had lower body-fat measures but normal levels of fat-free mass (FFM) and body-cellular mass. Gymnasts had better dietary habits than the age-matched controls. Low levels of calcium, phosphorous, iron, and zinc and a disparity between reported energy intake and estimated energy requirement were observed in both groups.