Body composition is a key component of health-related fitness and often used as a tool for risk assessment or as a measure of change in physical activity or diet. A variety of situations require the use of accurate body composition measurement techniques. There are various methods used to assess
Kerri L. Vasold, Andrew C. Parks, Deanna M.L. Phelan, Matthew B. Pontifex and James M. Pivarnik
Beau Kjerulf Greer, Kathleen M. Edsall and Anna E. Greer
The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test–retest reliability measures were significant (p < .01) and high for body fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7–68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p < .05). However, there were no differences (p > .05) in BOD POD–determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.
Kelly Samara Silva, Daniel Giordani Vasques, Caroline de Oliveira Martins, Laura Ashley Williams and Adair S. Lopes
Research has demonstrated that adolescents who actively commute have higher levels of physical activity (PA), which have declined precipitously over the past 30 years. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of active commuting to school; and to identify barriers associated with active commuting.
A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1672 students (46.8% boys and 53.2% girls) from 11 to 17 years of age in Caxias do Sul/RS, Brazil. The students were asked to answer questionnaires about active transport, PA, and sedentary behaviors. They also completed a cardiovascular fitness test and body composition measurements. The study used a multivariate Poisson regression analysis.
A total of 62.5% of students were observed to actively commute and the prevalence ratio (PR) of not actively commuting was associated with the type of school (Private: 2.41; 1.47, 3.95) and the time spent on commuting (>20 min: 1.93; 1.23, 3.03). The associated barriers to passive commuting were distance (3.02; 1.95, 4.71), crime/ danger (2.65; 1.82, 3.85), and traffic (1.75; 1.19, 2.58).
This study showed that environmental variables were strongly associated with active commuting. However, no alterations in body composition or other behavioral variables were observed after adjustment.
Felipe Fossati Reichert, Ana Maria Batista Menezes, Jonathan Charles Kingdom Wells, Ulf Ekelund, Fabiane Machado Rodrigues and Pedro Curi Hallal
Prospective studies on physical activity (PA), diet, and body composition in adolescents are lacking, particularly outside high-income countries.
To describe the methods used to assess these variables in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort and to discuss the fieldwork challenges faced and alternatives to overcome them.
In 2006–07 a subsample of the 1993 Pelotas cohort was revisited. PA was estimated using questionnaires, a combined heart-rate and motion sensor (Acti-Heart), and the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Diet was investigated by questionnaire. Total body water was determined by stable isotopes. Thirty individuals had their total energy expenditure assessed by doubly labeled water. All data were collected at participants’ home.
The logistics of the fieldwork and the difficulties in undertaking the study and alternatives to overcome them are presented. Preliminary analyses show that 511 individuals were traced (response rate = 90.0%). Compliance of both adolescents and their families for the motion sensors and body-composition measurements was excellent.
The authors conclude that it is feasible to carry out high-quality studies on PA in developing countries. They hope the article will be useful to other researchers interested in carrying out similar studies.
Kyle Davis, Stephen Rossi, Jody Langdon and Jim McMillan
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relationship between jumping and sprinting among members of a regionally competitive club-level ultimate team. Twenty-two subjects (mean ± SD; 21.1±2.26 year) volunteered to participate in two testing sessions the week before the team’s regional tournament. Testing sessions included body-composition measurement, a 40-yard sprint (with a 10-yard split time recorded), a standing long jump (LJ) and a vertical jump (VJ). Pearson product-moment correlations revealed a significant negative correlation between LJ and 40-yard sprint time. Significant positive relationships were observed between VJ height and 10-yard power, VJ power and 10-yard power, VJ power and relative 10-yard power, relative VJ power and relative 10-yard power, BJ distance and 10-yard power, VJ height and 40-yard power, VJ power and 40-yard power, and relative VJ power and relative 40-yard power. BJ distance related significantly to 40-yard velocity, 40-yard power and 40-yard relative power. There appears to be a relationship between jumping ability and sprinting in this population, but more studies with this population are needed to confirm these results.
Alex S. Ribeiro, Matheus A. Nascimento, Brad J. Schoenfeld, João Pedro Nunes, Andreo F. Aguiar, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha, Steven J. Fleck and Edilson S. Cyrino
University Ethics Committee. Experimental Design This experiment was carried out over a period of 16 weeks. The first 2 weeks and the last 2 weeks were used for measurements and evaluation. The remaining 12 weeks were dedicated to the intervention period. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were
Francesco Campa and Stefania Toselli
Helsinki and was approved by the local Bioethics Committee of the University of Bologna. Body-Composition Measurements The athletes were tested in the morning (9:00 AM) in the facilities of the teams and by the same operator (F.C.). All measurements were performed in resting conditions, before a midweek
Cody R. Butler, Kirsten Allen, Lindsay J. DiStefano and Lindsey K. Lepley
, and body composition measurement. This study found that participants with a history of ACL injury scored significantly lower in all categories. Cumulatively, these results indicate that those with a history of ACL injury may be at risk for a compromised cardiovascular system compared with their
Asunción Ferri-Morales, Marcus Vinicius Nascimento-Ferreira, Dimitris Vlachopoulos, Esther Ubago-Guisado, Ana Torres-Costoso, Augusto Cesar F. De Moraes, Alan R. Barker, Luis A. Moreno, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaino and Luis Gracia-Marco
; 53 ( 5 ): 382 – 7 . PubMed doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600735 10369494 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600735 28. Pietrobelli A , Tato L . Body composition measurements: from the past to the future . Acta Paediatr Suppl . 2005 ; 94 ( 448 ): 8 – 13 . doi:10.1080/08035320510035221 10.1080/08035320510035221 16175801
Flinn Shiel, Carl Persson, Vini Simas, James Furness, Mike Climstein, Rod Pope and Ben Schram
total and regional body composition measurements using different scanning positions and definitions of regions . Metabolism, 58 ( 11 ), 1663 – 1668 . doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2009.05.023 10.1016/j.metabol.2009.05.023 Moon , J.R. , Stout , J.R. , Smith-Ryan , A.E. , Kendall , K.L. , Fukuda , D