Body image has been defined as an individual’s internal representation of his or her outward appearance and may alter with different situations and contexts ( de Bruin, Oudejans, Bakker, & Woertman, 2011 ; Kong & Harris, 2015 ; Thompson & Stice, 2001 ). Body dissatisfaction occurs when there is a
Hayley Perelman, Joanna Buscemi, Elizabeth Dougherty and Alissa Haedt-Matt
Megan Brannan, Trent A. Petrie, Christy Greenleaf, Justine Reel and Jennifer Carter
In this study, we extended past research (Brannan & Petrie, 2008; Tylka, 2004) by examining perfectionism, optimism, self-esteem, and reasons for exercising as moderators of the body dissatisfaction-bulimic symptoms relationship among female collegiate athletes (N= 204). Hierarchical moderated regression was used to control for social desirability and physical size and then tested the main and interactive effects of the models. Body dissatisfaction was related to the measure of bulimic symptoms, accounting for 24% of the variance. Four variables were statistically significant as moderators. More concern over mistakes and being motivated to exercise to improve appearance and attractiveness or to socialize and improve mood increased the strength of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms. Self-esteem had a buffering effect that resulted in a weakened relationship.
Pooja Somasundaram and Alexandra M. Burgess
.98). The internal consistency of the EAT-26 is high in previous studies (α = .90; Garner et al., 1982 ) as well as in the current sample (α = .88). The Eating Disorders Inventory - Body Dissatisfaction Scale (EDI-BD; Garner, Olmstead, & Polivay, 1983 ) The EDI-BD consists of nine items that measure the
Bryan Raudenbush and Brian Meyer
Body image satisfaction was measured among college male athletes participating in track/cross-country, soccer, basketball, swimming, and lacrosse through the use of figure drawings varying in level of muscularity. All the athletes chose significantly different figure drawings to best represent their actual physique, ideal physique, and the physique they believed was most attractive to the opposite sex. For each sport, athletes’ actual physique was less muscular than both their ideal physique and the one they thought was attractive to the opposite sex. Soccer and lacrosse players chose an ideal physique larger than the one they thought was attractive to the opposite sex, while swimmers chose an ideal physique smaller than the one they thought was attractive to the opposite sex. Lacrosse players wanted to gain the most muscle. Those athletes who used muscle mass/weight-gain supplements spent more time per week in weight training and viewed their actual physique as larger than did athletes who did not use weight-gain supplements. The present results further reveal the desire of athletes to gain muscle, possibly to the extent of abusing weight-gain supplements and thus providing the foundation for faulty body image or dysfunctional eating.
Megan S. Patterson and Patricia Goodson
treatments. 11 , 15 Based on the impact compulsive exercise can have on the risk of developing or maintaining clinical eating disorders, this study’s purpose is to assess individual- and social-level factors related to compulsive exercise behavior. Body dissatisfaction is a common individual-level precursor
Rebecca A. Schlaff, Meghan Baruth, Faith C. LaFramboise and Samantha J. Deere
accompany the prenatal and postnatal periods. These changes in body size and/or shape may negatively impact women’s attitudes and feelings toward their figure, resulting in body dissatisfaction that develops during pregnancy and persists postpartum. 18 – 20 Previous research suggests that women who
Carlin M. Anderson, Trent A. Petrie and Craig S. Neumann
In this study, we tested Petrie and Greenleaf’s (2007) model of bulimic symptoms in two independent samples of female collegiate swimmers/divers and gymnasts. Structural equation modeling revealed support for the model, although it also suggested additional pathways. Specifically, general societal pressures regarding weight and body were related to the internalization of those ideals and, subsequently, to increases in body dissatisfaction. Pressures from the sport environment regarding weight and appearance were associated with more body dissatisfaction and more restrictive eating. Body dissatisfaction was related to more feelings of sadness, anger, and fear among the athletes. Negative affect, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint were related directly to bulimic symptoms, accounting for 55-58% of its variance. These results suggest that general sociocultural pressures are influential, but weight and appearance pressures in the sport environment may be even more pervasive and negative for female athletes.
Leonardo de Sousa Fortes, Santiago Tavares Paes, Clara Mockede Neves, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras Meireles and Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
The aim of this study was to compare the media-ideal and athletic internalization of gymnasts to track and field sprinters. Eighty-three female track and field sprinters and 50 female gymnasts participated. The subscales of the Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3 were used to evaluate the influence of the media on body image. The Body Shape Questionnaire was used to assess body dissatisfaction. The results showed no difference between the groups in media-ideal internalization (p > .05); however, the results indicated differences in athletic internalization (p < .05) and body dissatisfaction (p < .05). We concluded that although media-ideal internalization was similar, gymnasts showed greater athletic internalization.
Jessica H. Doughty and Heather A. Hausenblas
It is commonly believed that gymnasts are at risk for eating disorders. However, research examining whether gymnasts are a high-risk population for eating pathologies is equivocal. The purpose of our study was to examine disordered eating among Division I female gymnasts using a longitudinal design with validated eating disorder measures. Participants (n = 72) completed the Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction and Perfectionism subscales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (Garner, 1991), and the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (Martin et al., 1997), twice during their competitive season (i.e., October and March). There were no significant time differences for the eating disorder subscales, indicating that gymnasts’ perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, and anorexic tendencies may be stable characteristics that do not change across a competitive season. Implications of these results and future research directions are discussed.