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Silvia Gonçalves Ricci Neri, André Bonadias Gadelha, Ana Luiza Matias Correia, Juscélia Cristina Pereira, Ana Cristina de David and Ricardo M. Lima

reflects abdominal fat, 16 may exert a greater impact on the feet. However, the association between body fat distribution and plantar pressure in older adults has yet to be investigated. Such information would be informative and would help to elucidate the relationship between obesity and falls

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Paul J. Arciero, Christopher L. Gentile, Roger Martin-Pressman, Michael J. Ormsbee, Meghan Everett, Lauren Zwicky and Christine A. Steele

We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: 1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n = 27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 ± 9 y); 2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT < 30%; n =19, 10 female/9 male, age = 43 ± 10 y); and 3) an inactive control group (C, n = 17, 5 female/12 male, age 43 ± 11 y). RC+BD resulted in more favorable changes (P < 0.01) in percent body fat (−15.8% vs. −6.9%) and abdominal fat (−15.6% vs. −7.5%) compared to C+TD and C. Total cholesterol (−13.8%), LDL-cholesterol (−20.8%), and systolic blood pressure (−5.7%) declined (P > 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals.

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Melissa Hodge, Mary Hovinga, Kelley Gabriel, Linda Snetselaar, John Shepherd, Linda Van Horn, Victor Stevens, Brian Egleston, Alan Robson, Seungyoun Jung and Joanne Dorgan

This study prospectively investigates associations between youth moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and body composition in young adult women using data from the Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) and the DISC06 Follow-Up Study. MVPA was assessed by questionnaire on 5 occasions between the ages 8 and 18 years and at age 25-29 years in 215 DISC female participants. Using whole body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), overall adiposity and body fat distribution were assessed at age 25-29 years by percent body fat (%fat) and android-to-gynoid (A:G) fat ratio, respectively. Linear mixed effects models and generalized linear latent and mixed models were used to assess associations of youth MVPA with both outcomes. Young adult MVPA, adjusted for other young adult characteristics, was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (%fat decreased from 37.4% in the lowest MVPA quartile to 32.8% in the highest (p-trend = 0.02)). Adjusted for youth and young adult characteristics including young adult MVPA, youth MVPA also was significantly inversely associated with young adult %fat (β=-0.40 per 10 MET-hrs/wk, p = .02) . No significant associations between MVPA and A:G fat ratio were observed. Results suggest that youth and young adult MVPA are important independent predictors of adiposity in young women.

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YoonMyung Kim

counterparts ( 21 ). Thus, early detection, prevention, and treatment for childhood obesity and obesity-related health risks are of importance. There is a strong body of evidence supporting that a regional body fat distribution is one of the fundamental elements explaining the link between obesity and its

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Roger L. Hammer, Daryl McCombs and A. Garth Fisher

It has been suggested that weight loss and regain, known as weight cycling, may result in greater body fatness and increased upper body fat distribution which may lead to adverse health consequences. These are concerns that may discourage some obese women from undergoing weight loss efforts. We retested 44 obese women, who took part in one of two weight control studies conducted in our laboratory, at either 6 or 12 months posttreatment. The followup study was performed to determine whether percent body fat and waist/hip ratio (WHR) had increased in those subjects who failed to maintain their weight loss. Subjects lost (mean + SD) 8.6 + 1.2 kg body weight, of which 7.0 + 1.0 kg was fat, and reduced their WHR by 0.03 + 0.006 (all p’s < .01) after either 12 or 16 weeks of treatment comprised of eating a low-fat diet, and in most cases performing endurance exercise training. At followup subjects were divided into groups based on the amount of weight regained. Those who regained (n=19) their lost weight were not fatter nor was their WHR higher than before the study began. These results do not support claims that weight cycling, in this case a single cycle, increases overall percentage of body fat or causes a redistribution of fat to the abdominal region of women.

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Geoff D.C. Ball, J. Dru Marshall and Linda J. McCargar

We investigated whether body composition, physical activity, physical inactivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness explained the presence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes in youth. Eighty-three obese children (6–12 years old) were classified as either low health risk (LHR; n = 30) or high health risk (HHR; n = 53) based on the absence/presence of metabolic risk factors that included measures of dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and elevated blood pressure. Along with demographic and anthropometric data, body composition, physical activity, physical inactivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables were assessed. Risk factor clustering was evident in this sample with 24/83 (29%) possessing at least 2 risk factors. Percent body fat did not differ between the LHR (38.5%) and HHR (39.8%) groups, but total fat mass, total fat-free mass, and central body fat mass were greater in the high health risk group. The strongest predictor for the presence of risk factors was central body fat accumulation. Physical activity, physical inactivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness were unable to predict metabolic risk. Overall, we found that risk factors for CVD and type 2 diabetes were common and that body fat mass and central body fat distribution, in particular, were more important than physical activity, physical inactivity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in predicting metabolic risk in obese children.

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Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino

, P.J. , Gentile , C.L. , Martin-Pressman , R. , Ormsbee , M.J. , Everett , M. , Zwicky , L. , & Steele , C.A. ( 2006 ). Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors . International

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Nicole C. George, Charles Kahelin, Timothy A. Burkhart and David M. Andrews

measures of body fat distribution . Am J Phys Anthropol . 1987 ; 72 : 437 – 439 . doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330720404 3605318 10.1002/ajpa.1330720404 21. Nordhamn K , Södergren E , Olsson E , Karlström B , Vessby B , Berglund L

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Nathan F. Meier, Yang Bai, Chong Wang and Duck-chul Lee

.H. , Beason , T.S. , Hunleth , J.M. , & Colditz , G.A. ( 2012 ). A systematic review of body fat distribution and mortality in older people . Maturitas, 72 ( 3 ), 175 – 191 . PubMed ID: 22595204 doi: 10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.04.004 Chen , L.K. , Liu , L.K. , Woo , J. , Assantachai , P

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Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell, Alexa L. Werner and Kendall M. Iverson

-Amat A , Lomas-Vega R , et al . Relationship of body mass index and body fat distribution with postural balance and risk of falls in Spanish postmenopausal women . Menopause . 2013 ; 20 ( 2 ): 202 – 208 . PubMed ID: 22968253 22968253 33. Catena RD , van Donkelaar P , Halterman CI , Chou