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Jo Weber and Eleanor H. Wertheim

Upon becoming members at a community gymnasium, 55 women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control, self-monitoring of gym attendance, or self-monitoring of attendance plus extra staff attention. The effect of these interventions on gym attendance over 3 months was examined. A 3 X 4 (Group X Time Phase, first 3 weeks to last 3 weeks) ANOVA indicated that the main effects for group and time predicted attendance at the gym. Attendance during the first 3 weeks was significantly greater than attendance thereafter. The control subjects attended significantly less than the self-monitoring subjects at all phases. Further research is suggested toward using self-monitoring, staff support, and periodic progress feedback for increasing program adherence. In addition, self-motivation and body fat percent were assessed initially. Correlations between these two variables and attendance failed to support their usefulness as predictors at any time phase.

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan

Background: Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be detrimental to physical and cognitive health. However, implications of these interrelated health factors are rarely examined together; consequently, little is known regarding the concomitant contribution of physical activity and adiposity to cognition. Methods: Bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted among a sample of adults between 25 and 45 years (N = 65). Attentional inhibition was assessed using an Eriksen Flanker task. Whole-body percent body fat (%Fat) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Daily percent time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) was monitored using an accelerometer (7 d). Results: After adjusting for significant covariates, %MVPA was a positive predictor of accuracy in the incongruent task (β = 0.31, P = .03). Individuals who engaged in greater %MVPA exhibited superior attentional inhibition. Additionally, there was an interaction effect of %Fat and %MVPA on attentional inhibition (β = 0.45, P = .04). Conclusion: The positive influence of MVPA on cognitive control persists following the adjustment of significant covariates and adiposity. Additionally, interactive effects between %Fat and %MVPA suggest that individuals with lower activity and greater adiposity exhibited poorer attentional inhibition. These findings have relevance for public health given the elevated rates of physical inactivity and obesity.

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Adam J. Zemski, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater

application of absolute skinfold measurement is recommended to assess changes in body composition ( Ackland et al., 2012 ; Reilly et al., 2009 ), whilst the use of equations to estimate body fat percent (BF%) is advocated only if being applied to the population from which it was derived ( Reilly et al., 2009

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Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima and Mitsuru Higuchi

between serum 25(OH)D concentrations and glucose profiles also exist in male collegiate football athletes. In addition, the body fat percent and visceral fat area (VFA) have been convincingly shown to be stronger predictors of insulin resistance and T2DM in Asians compared with body mass index (BMI; Yoon

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David P. MacKinnon, Linn Goldberg, JeeWon Cheong, Diane Elliot, Greg Clarke and Esther Moe

This research examined the relationships among body attributes (i.e., body fat percent and bench press performance) and psychological esteem (i.e., perceived athletic competence, body image, and general self-esteem) in high school football players. Structural equation modeling was used to model the relationships among the constructs. Body fat was negatively related to athletic competence and body image, which in turn were positively related to general self-esteem. The role of bench press performance in predicting psychological esteem was inconsistent, however, suggesting that leanness may be more important than body strength for adolescent psychological esteem among high school football players.

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Han C.G. Kemper and Robbert Verschuur

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to identify factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in a teenage population in the Netherlands from ages 13.5 to 21.5 years. In a follow-up study 93 boys and 107 girls were measured annually from 1977 to 1980, and a fifth measurement was made in 1985. The CAD factors assessed were total serum cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), TC/HDL ratio, systolic (Psyst) and diastolic (Pdiast) blood pressure, percentage body fat (percent fat) and aerobic fitness (VO2 max/BW). The results indicate that the percentage of subjects at risk for CAD are relatively low in both sexes for all factors except for percent fat. From 20 to 30% of the subjects remain in the upper half of risk factor distribution throughout the 8 years study for TC, TC/HDL, percent fat, and VO2max/BW, indicating stability during the teenage period. Because percent fat combines a high stability with relatively high mean values during the teenage period in both sexes, this parameter seems a particularly important CAD risk factor in youngsters.

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Neha Singhal and Anupa Siddhu

Background:

The relationship between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is not clearly understood in Indian men. It is important to elucidate whether the duration or intensity of LTPA is responsible for increasing CRF. This will help in designing better physical activity intervention strategies for improving CRF in Indian men.

Methods:

Healthy nondiabetic urban Indian men with no history of coronary heart disease (CHD) were selected (n = 603; aged 22–64 years) and their energy intake and physical activity was determined using a questionnaire. Body fat (percent) was determined by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis while CRF was measured on multistage, continuous treadmill test using Bruce protocol.

Results:

Intensity of physical activity (METs) emerged as the best independent predictor of CRF (β = 0.217; P < .001). Using univariate General Linear Model, it was found that CRF is more a function of LTPA intensity than LTPA duration, since LTPA duration was not related to CRF when controlled for LTPA intensity. However, LTPA intensity remained significantly associated with CRF even after adjustment for LTPA duration.

Conclusion:

LTPA of preferably higher intensity should be incorporated in the lifestyle to improve CRF and prevent CHD in Indian men.

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Eric T. Trexler, Katie R. Hirsch, Bill I. Campbell and Abbie E. Smith-Ryan

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate changes in body composition, metabolic rate, and hormones during postcompetition recovery. Data were collected from natural physique athletes (7 male/8 female) within one week before (T1) competition, within one week after (T2), and 4–6 weeks after (T3) competition. Measures included body composition (fat mass [FM] and lean mass [LM] from ultrasongraphy), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), and salivary leptin, testosterone, cortisol, ghrelin, and insulin. Total body water (TBW; bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy) was measured at T1 and T2 in a subsample (n = 8) of athletes. Significant (p < .05) changes were observed for weight (T1 = 65.4 ± 12.2 kg, T2 = 67.4 ± 12.6, T3 = 69.3 ± 13.4; T3 > T2 > T1), LM (T1 = 57.6 ± 13.9 kg, T2 = 59.4 ± 14.2, T3 = 59.3 ± 14.2; T2 and T3 > T1), and FM (T1 = 7.7 ± 4.4 kg, T2 = 8.0 ± 4.4, T3 = 10.0 ± 6.2; T3 > T1 and T2). TBW increased from T1 to T2 (Δ=1.9 ± 1.3 L, p < .01). RMR increased from baseline (1612 ± 266 kcal/day; 92.0% of predicted) to T2 (1881 ± 329, 105.3%; p < .01) and T3 (1778 ± 257, 99.6%; p < .001). Cortisol was higher (p < .05) at T2 (0.41 ± 0.31 μg/dL) than T1 (0.34 ± 0.31) and T3 (0.35 ± 0.27). Male testosterone at T3 (186.6 ± 41.3 pg/mL) was greater than T2 (148.0 ± 44.6, p = .04). RMR changes were associated (p ≤ .05) with change in body fat percent (ΔBF%; r = .59) and T3 protein intake (r= .60); male testosterone changes were inversely associated (p≤ .05) with ΔBF%, ΔFM, and Δweight (r=-0.81–-0.88). TBW increased within days of competition. Precompetition RMR suppression appeared to be variable and markedly reversed by overfeeding, and reverted toward normal levels following competition. RMR and male testosterone increased while FM was preferentially gained 4–6 weeks postcompetition.

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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

relative body fat percent (% BF) were measured using the InBody520 bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system (Biospace.228). The same investigator performed all measures for all participants. Sexual maturity was self-assessed using the secondary sexual characteristics scale (pubic hair and breast

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Stephanie A. Hooker, Laura B. Oswald, Kathryn J. Reid and Kelly G. Baron

Percentage Body fat percentage was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry on a whole-body Hologic scanner (version 13.1; Hologic, Marlborough, MA). Total body fat percent was calculated using automated calculations provided by Hologic. Statistical Analyses Statistical analyses were conducted in SAS