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Sara Santarossa, Paige Coyne, Sarah J. Woodruff and Craig G. Greenham

ESPN The Magazine’ s The Body Issue is one of the most anticipated annual editions in the sport industry ( Fuller, 2018 ). The Body Issue debuted in 2009 to considerable fanfare and represented an effort by ESPN (Entertainment and Sports Programming Network) to boost lagging revenues ( Vogan, 2015

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Gregory A. Cranmer, Maria Brann and Nicholas D. Bowman

Previous studies have suggested that media reify frames that subtly enforce sex differences in a manner that detracts from women athletes’ athleticism. This phenomenon is referred to as ambivalence. To analyze ambivalence, this study introduces a theoretically and empirically supported coding scheme that was used to conduct a quantitative frame analysis of 157 images featured in ESPN’s The Body Issue. These images were coded for frames that de-emphasize athleticism, sexualize athletes, or deny a sporting context. Results suggest that athlete sex is associated with de-emphasized athleticism and sexualized frames, and sport gender is associated with context frames. Results also support longitudinal trends in The Body Issue series, which suggest that the series has become more sexualized and removed from a sports context but has decreased the use of frames that de-emphasize athleticism. In general, The Body Issue continues to reinforce established media trends that trivialize female athletes, despite claiming to do the opposite.

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Gregory A. Cranmer, Alexander L. Lancaster and Tina M. Harris

The disparity in framing in sport media based on athlete race has historically garnered extensive attention. In the past, the media promoted historical stereotypes of Black athletes that emphasized their physical prowess and diminished their intellectual capacity. However, recent research provides evidence that these traditional frames are changing and that recent media coverage is more racially equitable or even contradicts old patterns. Advancing this critique further, the current study examined novel visual frames (i.e., the emphasis of athleticism, sporting context, and sexualization) of White and Black athletes in ESPN’s The Body Issue. The findings contradict historical patterns of representations of Black athletes through the identification of a shift in the framing patterns for Black male athletes, whereas Black female athletes still face frames that portray them in a stereotypical manner. This study recognizes these tensions while successfully illustrating the importance of examining the intersections of difference for revealing and confronting the unique portrayals of Black female athletes.

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George W. Lawton, Tsung Min Hung, Pekka Saarela and Bradley D. Hatfield

High levels of athletic performance are frequently attributed to mental states. Evidence for this attribution comes mainly from phenomenological reports of athletes. However, research with elite performers using electrophysiological measures has tracked changes in nervous system activity in real time during performance, which may further understanding of such states. Specific patterns of psychophysiological activity from the cerebral cortex, in the form of event-related slow potentials (SPs), as well as spectral content measured by electroencephalography (EEG), occur in the few seconds of performance (preshot) preparation. We discuss these data. We suggest that the logical structure of research with athletes differs from other psychophysiological research. We emphasize the theoretical mind-body issues and the logical structure of these investigations to suggest directions for future research.

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R.L. Caughron

improvement to sport (often bringing up the “moral” dilemma of whether it the athlete or the technical doping that is competing). The last part of the chapter is a very interesting discussion of the Oscar Pistorius “cyborg bodiesissue, analyzing the concept of the inclusion of “transhuman” disabled athletes

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Ken Payne and Curtis Edge

things to create that aura. She makes sure she is at Wimbledon, she makes sure she is on the red carpet, and she makes sure she is in the Sports Illustrated Body Issue. All that is orchestrated by her PR agency and she has been very conscious of her image. Now Tommy, on the other hand, he never did

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Øyvind F. Standal, Tor Erik H. Nyquist and Hanne H. Mong

body issuing a paper documenting that a person is qualified to work as, say, a nurse or a physiotherapist. For sports pedagogues, this was not the case. There were (and still are) no uniform requirements for their qualification, and their title was not protected judicially in the same way as those who

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Dawn Heinecken

and history on the ground: Documentary and the feature film . Sport and Society, 12 ( 1 ), 118 – 133 . doi:10.1080/17430430802472350 10.1080/17430430802472350 Hull , K. , Smith , L.R. , & Schmittel , A. ( 2015 ). Form or function? An examination of ESPN Magazine’s “Body Issue .” Visual