Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Patrick O. McKeon
Gashaw Abeza, Norm O’Reilly and John Nadeau
Sport and communication have existed since humans began interacting with one another, with organized sport and planned communication formalized for hundreds of years. However, social science scholars have only taken a high-level of interest in sport communication over the past decade. Over the past 10 years, much has been written and researched in the field, and its formalization continues, justifying a need for a review of its current status and the articulation of its future directions. Thus, this article identifies and critically discusses the developments in the field of sport communication in terms of its academic infrastructures and the resulting body of knowledge. It also assesses how the field’s developments are affecting scholarly advancements and identifies areas of “disciplinary pain.” The work concludes by providing suggestions for future research.
Brenda G. Pitts and Karen E. Danylchuk
This study examined the current textbooks in sport management using the quantitative content analytic research method. Sport management books selected for examination were limited to those written in English published from 1990 through to November 2006 inclusive. Of the 129 books representing 14 categories analyzed, the greatest number of books was in the categories of management (n = 36) and marketing (n = 27). These categories were followed by law (n = 13), finance (n = 9), and event management (n = 8). The majority of the books (88%) were authored. Among the authors and editors, 79% were male. The majority of books (85%) did not indicate a target audience. The average year of publication of all books was 2001, with almost three-quarters (73%) being published from the year 2000 onwards. The number of publishers was 40, of which the vast majority was in the United States.
Yuhei Inoue, Mikihiro Sato and Kevin Filo
this broad paradigm, TSSR strives to create a body of knowledge exploring how personal and collective well-being can be improved through a range of services offered in the sport industry. There is a relatively established line of sport management research investigating topics related to the
Luc H.V. van der Woude, Dirk-Jan E.J. Veeger and Rients H. Rozendal
A review of wheelchair research within the scope of the wheelchair as a means of daily ambulation is presented. The relevance of a combined biomechanical and physiological research approach is advocated for enhancing the body of knowledge of wheelchair ergonomics, that is, the wheelchair/user interaction in relation to aspects of vehicle mechanics and the user’s physical condition. Results of experiments regarding variations in the wheelchair/user interface stress the possibilities of optimization in terms of wheelchair dimensions and user characteristics. Analysis of propulsion technique is aimed at the within-cycle characteristics and the time-dependent organization of technique.
Paul G. Schempp
Recent years have seen an increase in the amount of research activity devoted to teaching in physical education. The result of these efforts has been a substantial growth in the body of knowledge regarding movement pedagogy. Most of these undertakings have been completed with the natural science mode of inquiry as the research model. Thus, the natural science research paradigm has emerged as the dominant mode of inquiry and analysis for research on teaching in physical education. In spite of the major contributions made in the engagement of the natural science model, the subscription to a dominant mode of inquiry holds serious consequences in the development of any body of knowledge. The underlying assumptions of a paradigm pose limits to the knowledge to which one has access. Therefore, this paper offers an analysis of the assumptions embedded in the operationalization of the natural science research paradigm in order to illuminate their limitations for research on teaching in physical education. The assumptions of an alternative, qualitative paradigm are also identified and discussed in terms of their potential for researching beyond the limits of the natural science model. It was not the intent of this paper to declare one paradigm superior to any other, but rather to recognize the need for alternative perspectives in researching the phenomenon of teaching physical education.
This paper seeks to develop understanding of both clinician-patient encounters within sport and Elias’s sociology of knowledge. Premised on a belief that there is a relatively high degree of consensus between figurational and “non-figurational” research on the social organization of sport medicine, and that such a consensus contrasts with the rather acrimonious relations which have characterized similar perspectival relations in the past, a review of literature is undertaken to highlight aspects of implicit agreement. Using a range of Elias’s concepts, this paper argues that there is broad agreement between researchers that clinician-patient relations are fundamentally structured according to mutually coexisting bodies of knowledge, and that there is cross-theoretical acceptance that such bodies of knowledge are shaped by, and make sense within, the distinct social context in which the respective parties are located. In examining aspects of Elias’s theoretical perspective which have hitherto received relatively little attention in the sociology of sport, this paper invites a revision of readings of this theoretical approach within the subdiscipline.
Judith H. Placek
The Basic Stuff Series, nine books summarizing the body of knowledge in physical education and giving ideas for teaching this knowledge, was published by AAHPERD in 1981 and has become a best-seller. This study set out to discover who has purchased Basic Stuff and to determine if and how the purchasers are using the books. A survey questionnaire was sent to 966 individuals who had purchased Basic Stuff from 1982 to 1986. Results indicate that about two-thirds of the respondents had read the books and one-half to two-thirds said they were using Basic Stuff in their work. Many asked for more help in implementing Basic Stuff in their classes. An analysis of the change effort was done based on research on planned change in education.
Michael W. Churton
Development of personnel preparation programs has focused upon a progressive trend away from a strict adherence to a physical education philosophy to a philosophy that stresses more of a multidisciplinary approach. Early obstacles experienced by directors of personnel preparation programs included legislation, program development, and a limited body of knowledge. Future considerations include directors with varied educational backgrounds and a national movement toward quality education. Teacher training programs will need to redefine their curriculum offerings in adapted physical education to address quality assurance requirements. Future programs in adapted physical education will need to become more field based and address functional competencies that will prepare students to meet the psychomotor needs of handicapped children effectively.
Alejandro Lucía, María Morán, He Zihong and Jonatan R. Ruiz
Recent research has analyzed the genetic factors that influence world-class athletic status. Much of what we know comes from association studies, with the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms having been extensively studied. The association between the ACTN3 R577X variation and elite athlete status in power sports is strongly documented, yet whether the current body of knowledge on other variants can be extrapolated to athletic champion status remains to be determined. Athletic champion status is a complex polygenic trait in which numerous candidate genes, complex gene–gene interactions, and environment–gene interactions are involved. Besides the need for more studies and new approaches taking into account the complexity of the problem, we believe that factors beyond genetic endowment are likely to have a stronger influence in the attainment of athletic champion status.