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A.P. (Karin) de Bruin and Raôul R.D. Oudejans

my body changed when I entered puberty and my body started to alter; I began to compare myself with others: ‘Perhaps the girls around me are thinner?’” (rower). This quote also illustrates that body comparisons are a part of the athletes’ body experiences. Only few athletes (i.e., the former rower

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Sony SooHoo, Justine J. Reel, and Patricia F. Pearce

Adolescent cheerleaders are seen as American icons, but psychosocial factors can predispose them to body image disturbances and disordered eating. Understanding body image development is critical to promoting healthy body image, as well as preventing disordered eating and its related health risks. The purpose of this study was to explore the development of body image among adolescent female cheerleaders. A grounded theory approach was used to conduct 26 interviews with 14 adolescent female cheerleaders (M = 14.07, SD = 2.40) who cheered at All-star gyms, junior high, or high schools to explore their body image experiences. The categories included body awareness (i.e., physical changes, body comparison), cheerleading environment (i.e., cheerleading image, position body type, uniform), and social factors (i.e., parental influences, comments from others). These categories influenced body image through the central category, developing attitude, demonstrating the complexity of body image construction among adolescent females.

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Kelly P. Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Celina Shirazipour, and Krystn Orr

disability groups relative to able-bodied comparison groups. Chapter 26 explores the research examining the link between the multidimensional components of quality of life and physical activity, with a critical discussion of the need for future research to move beyond cross-sectional designs and to explore

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Ioanna Kontele, Tonia Vassilakou, Maria Psychountaki, Justine J. Reel, and Olyvia Donti

, 2015 ). In many studies, athletes identify coaches as the primary source of weight pressure, that is characterized not only by comments, but also by weight monitoring, food monitoring, and body comparisons ( de Bruin & Oudejans, 2018 ; McGannon & McMahon, 2019 ; Voelker & Reel, 2015 ). A recent

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Clara Teixidor-Batlle, Carles Ventura Vall-llovera, Justine J. Reel, and Ana Andrés

-of-fit indices were adequate in the CFA. In agreement with Galli and Reel ( 2009 ), our results showed that body comparisons by Spanish teammates in a sport may be particularly salient, whereas comments and teasing from teammates and coaches about body shape and weight may be a source of pressure to promote body

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Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik, and Colleen Daly

). Not surprisingly, appearance-related upward comparisons (i.e., comparing yourself to someone viewed as superior on a given attribute) are associated with body image disturbance in women ( Myers & Crowther, 2009 ). Self-objectification and body comparisons may feed off each other, with self

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Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry

eating ( Fitzsimmons-Craft, Harney, Brownstone, Higgins, & Bardone-Cone, 2012 ; Krane et al., 2001 ). Therefore, creating positive and nurturing climates may minimize body comparisons among individuals and encourage exercise adherence. In summary, BE dissatisfaction and SPA are often a result of

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch, and Manuel Waldorf

scale in men and women . Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5 ( 1 ), 49 – 58 . doi:10.1037/1524-9220.5.1.49 10.1037/1524-9220.5.1.49 McCreary , D.R. , & Saucier , D.M. ( 2009 ). Drive for muscularity, body comparison, and social physique anxiety in men and women . Body Image, 6 ( 1 ), 24 – 30

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Dana K. Voelker and Justine J. Reel

. Consistent with research conducted with male collegiate athletes ( Galli et al., 2014 ; Galli & Reel, 2009 ), the skaters in this study reported that sport-related weight pressures came from coaches, body comparison with their more elite level counterparts, and required athletic attire. Interestingly

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Mary Page Leggett-James, Matthew E. Vanaman, Danielle Lindner, and Robert L. Askew

.A. ( 2009 ). Multidimensional body comparisons among patients with eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and clinical controls: A multisite study . Body Image, 6 ( 3 ), 155 – 163 . PubMed ID: 19410528 10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.03.001 Hu , L. , & Bentler