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The Reliability and Convergent Validity of Field Tests of Body Composition in Young Adolescents

Michelle Ihmels, Gregory J. Welk, James J. McClain, and Jodee Schaben

Background:

Advances in BIA offer practical alternative approaches to assessing body composition in young adolescents and have not been studied for comparability.

Methods:

This study compared reliability and convergent validity of three field tests (2-site skinfold, Omron and Tanita BIA devices) on young adolescents. Reliability was determined using intraclass correlation coefficients, convergent validity was examined by computing correlations among the three estimates, differences in estimated body fat values were evaluated using repeated-measures ANOVA, and classification agreement was computed for achieving FITNESSGRAM ® Healthy Fitness Zone.

Results:

ICC values of all three measures exceeded .97. Correlations ranged from .74 to .81 for males and .79 to .91 for females. Classification agreement values ranged from 82.8% to 92.6%.

Conclusions:

Results suggest general agreement among the selected methods of body composition assessments in both boys and girls with the exception that percent body fat in boys by Tanita BIA is significantly lower than skinfold estimation.

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Assessment of Body Composition and Sport Performance of Brazilian Paralympic Swim Team Athletes

Radamés M.V. Medeiros, Eduardo S. Alves, Valdir A. Lemos, Paulo A. Schwingel, Andressa da Silva, Roberto Vital, Alexandre S. Vieira, Murilo M. Barreto, Edilson A. Rocha, Sergio Tufik, and Marco T. de Mello

Context:

Body-composition assessments of high-performance athletes are very important for identifying physical performance potential. Although the relationship between the kinanthropometric characteristics and performance abilities of Olympic swimmers is extremely important, this subject is not completely understood for Paralympic swimmers.

Objective:

To investigate the relationship between body composition and sport performance in Brazilian Paralympic swimmers 6 mo after training.

Design:

Experimental pre/posttest design.

Setting:

Research laboratory and field evaluations of swimming were conducted to verify the 50-m freestyle time of each athlete.

Participants:

17 Brazilian Paralympic swim team athletes (12 men, 5 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

Body-composition assessments were performed using a BOD POD, and swimming performance was assessed using the 50-m freestyle, which was performed twice: before and after 6 mo of training.

Results:

Increased lean mass and significantly reduced relative fat mass and swimming time (P < .05) were observed 6 mo after training. Furthermore, a positive correlation between body-fat percentage and performance (r = .66, P < .05) was observed, but there was no significant correlation between body density and performance (r = –.14, P > .05).

Conclusions:

After a 6-mo training period, Paralympic swimmers presented reduced fat mass and increased lean body mass associated with performance, as measured by 50-m freestyle time. These data suggest that reduced fat-mass percentage was significantly correlated with improved swimming performance in Paralympic athletes.

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Body Composition and Performance in Shot Put Athletes at Preseason and at Competition

Thomas Kyriazis, Gerasimos Terzis, Giorgos Karampatsos, Stavros Kavouras, and Giorgos Georgiadis

Purpose:

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between fat-free mass and shot put performance at the beginning of the winter preparation cycle and at the first peak of the season (12 wk later) in well-trained shot-putters using the rotational style.

Methods:

Eight national-level shot put athletes followed their individual training programs for a period of 12 wk aiming at the national indoor championship. Shot put performance with the rotational style as well as from the power position was determined before and after this 12 wk period. Body composition was determined before and after the training period with dual x-ray absorptiometry.

Results:

Shot put from the power position was increased by 3% (P = .03) while shot put with the rotational style was increased by 6.5% (P < .01). Fat-free mass, body fat and bone mineral density were not altered after the training period. The correlation coefficient between fat-free mass and shot put performance from the power position was significant (r = .76 preseason vs r = .66, competition; P < .05). The correlation coefficient between fat-free mass and shot put performance with the rotational style was significant at the beginning of the training period (r = .70, P < .05) but it was decreased to moderate and nonsignificant levels at competition (r = .55, ns).

Conclusions:

These results suggest that the increase of fat-free mass might not be the most essential element for competition when the rotational shot put style is involved.

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The Influence of Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Lower Extremity Strength on Walking Ability

Elisa Marques, Joana Carvalho, Andreia Pizarro, Flávia Wanderlay, and Jorge Mota

We examined the relationship among objective measures of body composition, lower extremity strength, physical activity, and walking performance and determined whether this interaction differed according to walking ability. Participants were 126 adults ages 60–91 yr. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the 30-s chair stand test (30sCST), appendicular lean mass index (aLMI), body mass index, and age were independent contributors to walking performance, explaining 44.3% of the variance. For slower walkers, appendicular fat mass index (aFMI), moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), 30sCST, and aLMI (r 2 = .49, p < .001) largely explained variance in walking performance. For faster walkers, aFMI and aLMI explained 31.4% (p < .001) of the variance. These data suggest that both fat and lean mass are associated with walking performance in higher- and lower-functioning older adults, whereas MPVA and muscle strength influence walking ability only among lower-functioning older adults.

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Comparison of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Professional Urban Firefighters

Disa J. Smee, Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Julie A. Cooke, Ben G. Serpell, and Kate L. Pumpa

Australian fire services, like many jurisdictions worldwide, are experiencing an ageing workforce. As occurs in the general population ( Kyle et al., 2001 ), increasing age is linked with changes in the body composition of urban firefighters ( Walker et al., 2014 ). Specifically, with age, urban

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Determination of Body Composition in Community-Dwelling Older Adults With and Without Sarcopenia Using Data From Practical Measures

Sugalya Amatachaya, Pakwipa Chokphukiao, Puttipong Poncumhak, Roongnapa Intaruk, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, and Pipatana Amatachaya

Body composition changes such as decreased appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), lean body mass (LBM), and bone mineral content (BMC), with increased body fat mass (FM), frequently predispose older adults to sarcopenia, frailty, loss of independence, falls, fractures, and hospitalization

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Preseason Body Composition Adaptations in Elite White and Polynesian Rugby Union Athletes

Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad, Damian J. Marsh, Karen Hind, and Gary J. Slater

in body composition, such as increases in lean mass (LM), are associated with favorable changes in a number of performance traits ( Bilsborough et al., 2016 ; Crewther et al., 2013 ). Therefore, being able to accurately quantify preseason physique changes is of value to sport science practitioners

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Body Composition Asymmetry in University Rugby Players: Influence of Sex, Position, and Injury

Tamara R. Cohen, Brent Rosenstein, Amanda Rizk, Stephane Frenette, and Maryse Fortin

primary aim of this study was to examine side-to-side asymmetries in body composition in college rugby players and possible seasonal changes in side-to-side asymmetries over the course of a competitive season. A secondary aim was to investigate whether the extent of side-to-side asymmetries is associated

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Effects of the Mat Pilates Method on Body Composition: Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis

Allysiê Priscilla de Souza Cavina, Eduardo Pizzo Junior, Aryane Flauzino Machado, Taíse Mendes Biral, Leonardo Kesrouani Lemos, Caio Russo Dutra Rodrigues, Carlos Marcelo Pastre, and Franciele Marques Vanderlei

obese. 1 , 2 Currently, several clinical trials are studying possible designs that may reverse this population condition, using body composition as a way of evaluating the absolute and relative amounts of different types of body fat. 3 From these variables, the fat mass and body fat percentage have

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Short-Term Precision Error of Body Composition Assessment Methods in Resistance-Trained Male Athletes

Ava Farley, Gary J. Slater, and Karen Hind

composition on a regular basis in these athletes. By accurately quantifying changes in physique, more refined training and dietary interventions may be implemented, which can positively influence performance outcomes ( Slater et al., 2005 ). A variety of body composition assessment methods are available to