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Behavioral, Psychological, and Physical Characteristics of Female Athletes with Subclinical Eating Disorders

Katherine A. Beals and Melinda M. Manore

The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below (-5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by strict dietary rules, accompanied by extreme feelings of guilt and self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.

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Competitive Bodybuilding: Positive Deviance, Body Image Pathology, or Modern Day Competitive Sport?

Mark T. Suffolk

The sport of competitive bodybuilding is strongly associated with muscle dysmorphia, a body-image-related psychological disorder. This theoretical article draws on existing concepts, namely stereotyping, prejudice, and positive deviance in sport, to explicate the notion that competitive bodybuilding and body-image disturbance may be mistakenly conflated. The perspective offered here goes beyond the countercultural physique to argue that a negative social perception of competitive bodybuilders obscures the pragmatic necessity to develop a hypermesomorphic physique. Competitive bodybuilders (CBs) and athletes in mainstream competitive sport exhibit congruent psychobehavioral tendencies. In a competitive-sport context, behavior among CBs perceived as pathological may primarily represent a response to the ideological sporting ethic of “win at all costs,” not extreme body-image disturbance. Analyzing the psychobehavioral characteristics of CBs within a sporting rather than a pathological framework, allows for a contextual assessment of behaviors to then determine the clinical significance relative to the research population under investigation.

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Socially Constructed Body Image of Female Adolescent Cheerleaders

Sony SooHoo, Justine J. Reel, and Patricia F. Pearce

Adolescent cheerleaders are seen as American icons, but psychosocial factors can predispose them to body image disturbances and disordered eating. Understanding body image development is critical to promoting healthy body image, as well as preventing disordered eating and its related health risks. The purpose of this study was to explore the development of body image among adolescent female cheerleaders. A grounded theory approach was used to conduct 26 interviews with 14 adolescent female cheerleaders (M = 14.07, SD = 2.40) who cheered at All-star gyms, junior high, or high schools to explore their body image experiences. The categories included body awareness (i.e., physical changes, body comparison), cheerleading environment (i.e., cheerleading image, position body type, uniform), and social factors (i.e., parental influences, comments from others). These categories influenced body image through the central category, developing attitude, demonstrating the complexity of body image construction among adolescent females.

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Trait Perfectionism, Perfectionistic Self-Presentation, and Muscle Dysmorphia in Male Exercisers: A Structural Equation Modeling Strategy

Michael C. Grugan and Kieran J. Wright

-presentation as a potential risk factor. This is despite research showing that perfectionistic self-presentation predicts body dissatisfaction, eating disorder attitudes, and orthorexia ( Ferreira et al., 2014 ; McGee et al., 2005 ; Pratt et al., 2022 ), as well as exercise dependence, body image disturbance

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Body Dissatisfaction in Collegiate Athletes: Differences Between Sex, Sport Type, and Division Level

Hayley Perelman, Joanna Buscemi, Elizabeth Dougherty, and Alissa Haedt-Matt

.1080/104132001753144437 Heinberg , L.J. , & Thompson , J.K. ( 1992 ). Social comparison: Gender, target, importance ratings and relation to body image disturbance . Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 7 , 335 – 344 . Retrieved from Hoag , M.M. ( 2012 ). Body

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The Role of Ego Networks in Compulsive Exercise Behavior Among a Sample of College Sorority Women

Megan S. Patterson and Patricia Goodson

Abnorm Psychol . 1999 ; 108 : 255 – 266 . PubMed ID: 10369035 doi:10.1037/0021-843X.108.2.255 10369035 10.1037/0021-843X.108.2.255 34. Thompson JK , Heinberg LJ , Altabe M , Tantlett-Dunn S . Exacting Beauty: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment of Body Image Disturbance . Washington, DC

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Assessment of Athletes With Eating Disorders: Essentials for Best Practice

Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols

muscularity, body image disturbance in males, unhealthy or dangerous weight loss practices, and steroid use ( Mitchison & Mond, 2015 ), thereby challenging accuracy of symptom and risk identification. In addition, reliability and validity of SRMTs is influenced by the athletes perception of how collected

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Tone it Down: How Fitness Instructors’ Motivational Comments Shape Women’s Body Satisfaction

Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik, and Colleen Daly

). Not surprisingly, appearance-related upward comparisons (i.e., comparing yourself to someone viewed as superior on a given attribute) are associated with body image disturbance in women ( Myers & Crowther, 2009 ). Self-objectification and body comparisons may feed off each other, with self

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Advocating for Gender Equity in Sport: An Analysis of the Canadian Women and Sport She’s Got It All Campaign

Maryam Marashi, Sabrina Malouka, Tahla den Houdyker, and Catherine M. Sabiston

particularly important given that body image disturbance is a significant disrupter to the female athletes experience and positively correlates with body size ( Calzo et al., 2012 ; Sabiston et al., 2019 ). Another body-related finding in the current study is that half of the models are perceived as having

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An Exploratory Assessment of Sociocultural Attitudes and Appearance Comparison Among Athletes With Physical Disabilities

Alexandra M. Rodriguez, Alison Ede, Leilani Madrigal, Tiffanye Vargas, and Christy Greenleaf

treatment of body image disturbance . American Psychological Association . Tiggemann , M. , & Zaccardo , M. ( 2018 ). ‘Strong is the new skinny’: A content analysis of# fitspiration images on Instagram . Journal of Health Psychology, 23 ( 8 ), 1003 – 1011