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Timothy W. Cacciatore, Patrick M. Johnson, and Rajal G. Cohen

in postural tone in turn affect many aspects of the motor system. We further posit that broader research on interconnections between postural tone and body schema may help explain changes in body-based self-perception through AT training. Although AT affects pain and is likely to affect mood, our

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Fabien Cignetti, Sébastien Caudron, Marianne Vaugoyeau, and Christine Assaiante

There is evidence that adolescence is a critical period in development, most likely involving important modifications of the body schema and of the sensorimotor representations. The present study addressed this issue, by investigating the differences between adolescents and adults regarding the integration of proprioceptive information at both perceptual and postural levels and the visual recognition of human movement. Proprioceptive integration was examined using muscle-tendon vibration that evoked either a postural response or an illusory sensation of movement. The ability to recognize human movement was investigated from a paradigm where the participants had to discern between human movements performed with and without gravity. The study produced three main findings. First, the adolescents had larger postural responses to tendon vibrations than the adults, with visual information enabling them to reduce this exaggerated postural reaction. Second, the adolescents had a greater illusory perception of movement compared with the adults. Third, the adolescents had the same perceptual ability as adults in the human movement perception task. In conclusion, we were able to highlight notable differences between adolescents and young adults, which confirms the late maturation of multisensory integration for postural control and the privileged visual contribution to postural control.

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Kenneth Aggerholm and Kristian Møller Moltke Martiny

embodiment by clarifying a classic and central distinction between two terms of embodiment: body image and body schema . The body image consists of “a complex set of intentional states and dispositions—perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes—in which the intentional object is one’s own body. This involves a

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Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek, and Cheryl A. Cott

stability, mobility, and orientation of the multijoint kinetic chain, which is reflective of the individual’s body schema in order to maintain, achieve, or restore a state of equilibrium during any posture or activity ( Vaughan-Graham & Cott, 2016 ). The Bobath therapist also considers the role of cognition

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Masanori Sakamoto and Hirotoshi Ifuku

subsequent arm movement as if the tool is being incorporated into the body schema ( Cardinali et al., 2009 ). Similar findings were also obtained using a robot manipulandum ( Ganesh et al., 2014 ). These results suggest that repeated use of various tools allows their incorporation into the body schema

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James Stephens and Susan Hillier

, and self-touching techniques to emphasize the importance visualizing the skeleton as a key to body-schema enrichment. The back school comprised core stabilization biofeedback (CSB) and motor-control exercises, each accompanied by an educational component. Both CSB and motor-control exercises have been

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Tatiana Tapajcikova, Dávid Líška, Ladislav Batalik, Clea P. Tucker, and Alena Kobesova

provided as mean ±  SD . *Statistically significant difference observed p  < .05. Discussion The results of this study identified significantly better body schema and better striking accuracy when performing quick dynamic movements in karate athletes as compared with the general population participants

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Roger Russell

from the developmental perspective, the child is forging a body image ( Russell, In press ). There is large body of literature about body schema, body image, and self-image (e.g., De Preester & Knockaert, 2005 ; Di Paolo, Buhrmann, Xabier, & Barandiaran, 2017 ; Knoblich, Thornton, Grosjean

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Charlotte Woods, Lesley Glover, and Julia Woodman

not be judged. Learning about and resisting habit can be a challenging process, and students need to develop a forgiving attitude toward themselves. We all carry representations of ourselves and our interactions with the environment—our “body schema” ( Schilling, 2012 , pp. 233–237). These can be