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Jeanette M. Ricci, Todd A. Astorino, Katharine D. Currie, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

( 25 ). These components provide a foundation for a healthy and active lifestyle and are strongly related to PA engagement, specifically VPA, and physical fitness during childhood and early adulthood ( 42 , 47 ). Multijoint body-weight resistance exercises that emphasize foundational movement patterns

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Janina M. Prado-Rico and Marcos Duarte

asymmetry will change over time. In a previous study, we indeed observed that postural changes are associated with asymmetry in the weight distribution between sides ( Prado, Dinato, & Duarte, 2011 ), but the body weight asymmetry during relaxed standing was never quantified. Whether humans have a prevalent

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Jeanette M. Ricci, Katharine D. Currie, Todd A. Astorino, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

incorporate muscular fitness and motor competence activities in children, including body-weight exercises and active-play games ( 13 , 16 , 25 , 45 ). These are important aspects of physical activity (PA) in children and serve as a foundation for life-long sport and habitual PA participation ( 27 ). The

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Ben J. Lee and Charles Douglas Thake

The use of lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) or body-weight-supported (BWS) exercise has become increasingly popular in rehabilitation and injury prevention settings. 1 – 4 A key benefit of applying LBPP is that cardiovascular fitness and lower limb function can be maintained, while the

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John A. Mercer, Bryon C. Applequist, and Kenji Masumoto

Background:

Body-weight (BW) support during running can be accomplished using deep-water running (DWR; 100% BW support) and a lower-body positive-pressure (LBPP) treadmill.

Purpose:

To compare lower-extremity muscle activity during DWR and running on an LBPP treadmill at matched stride frequency.

Methods:

Eight subjects (40 ± 6.5 y, 173 ± 7.2 cm, 66.9 ± 11.7 kg) completed 4 running conditions all at a preferred stride frequency that was determined while running with no support. Two conditions were running on the LBPP treadmill at 60% and 80% of BW, and the other 2 conditions were different DWR styles: high knee (DWR-HK) and cross-country (DWR-CC). Average (AVG) and root-mean-square (RMS) electromyography (rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior) were each compared among conditions (repeated-measures analysis of variance).

Results:

Results for AVG and RMS variables were identical for statistical tests for each muscle. Rectus femoris electromyography during DWR-HK was lower than that of DWR-CC (P < .05) but not different than either 60% BW or 80% BW (P > .05). Biceps femoris electromyography was less during DWR-HK than DWR-CC (P < .05) but greater during DWR-HK than either BW 60% or BW 80% (P < .05). Neither gastrocnemius nor tibialis anterior electromyography differed between conditions (P > .05).

Conclusion:

Neither the mechanism of BW support nor style of DWR influenced gastrocnemius or tibialis anterior muscle activity during running at the same stride frequency. However, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscle activity were influenced by not only the mechanism of BW support but also the style of DWR.

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Xingyun Zhu, Fang Zhang, Jing Chen, Yingxi Zhao, Tianhao Ba, Chu Lin, Yingli Lu, Tao Yu, Xiaoling Cai, Li Zhang, and Linong Ji

Clinical Practice Guidelines Expert Committee et al., 2018 ). Several systemic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of exercise on metabolic and weight control, and indicated that exercise was associated with reduction in body weight, waist circumference (WC), and total body fat

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James W. Youdas, Hannah E. Baartman, Brian J. Gahlon, Tyler J. Kohnen, Robert J. Sparling, and John H. Hollman

Suspension training devices have become popular among fitness and rehabilitation professionals, because they permit persons to exercise under unstable conditions while using body weight resistance. 1 – 3 A suspension strap secured to a fixed point above the exerciser permits movement against the

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James Dziura, Stanislav V. Kasl, and Loretta Di Pietro

Background:

It is not clear whether physical activity can exert a protective role on diabetes risk in older people that is independent of the changes in body weight that occur with both aging and disuse. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the relation between current physical activity, 3-year change in body weight, and the subsequent risk of type 2 diabetes in an older cohort.

Methods:

We studied prospectively 2,135 older (≥65 years) persons living in New Haven, CT, between 1982 and 1994. Physical activity was self-reported in 1982 and again in 1985; body weight and diabetes were self-reported annually over 12 years. Data were analyzed using multivariable Cox Proportional Hazards modeling with adjustments for age, sex, race, education, body mass index (BMI), smoking, chronic conditions, physical function, and alcohol intake.

Results:

Although an inverse graded relation was observed between level of activity and rate of diabetes, this dose–response relation did not reach statistical significance. However, older people who reported at least some activity at baseline experienced a significantly lower rate of diabetes between 1983 and 1994 compared to those reporting no activity (RR = 0.55; 95%CI = 0.35, 0.87). When 3-year changes in physical activity and body weight between 1982 and 1985 were added to the model, the relation between physical activity and reduced diabetes risk was unchanged (RR = 0.49; 95%CI = 0.24, 0.99).

Conclusions:

Even in advanced age, physical activity exerts an important and independent role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Continued physician counseling on the health effects of physical activity and referrals to community-based exercise programs should be encouraged among older people.

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Elizabeth M. Broad, Louise M. Burke, Greg R. Cox, Prue Heeley, and Malcolm Riley

Fluid losses (measured by body weight changes) and voluntary fluid intakes were measured in elite basketball, netball, and soccer teams during typical summer and winter exercise sessions to determine fluid requirements and the degree of fluid replacement. Each subject was weighed in minimal clothing before and immediately after training, weights, and competition sessions; fluid intake, duration of exercise, temperature and humidity, and opportunity to drink were recorded. Sweat rates were greatest during competition sessions and significantly lower during weights sessions for all sports. Seasonal variation in dehydration (%DH) was not as great as may have been expected, particularly in sports played indoors. Factors influencing fluid replacement during exercise included provision of an individual water bottle, proximity to water bottles during sessions, encouragement to drink, rules of the game, duration and number of breaks or substitutions, and awareness of personal sweat rates. Guidelines for optimizing fluid intakes in these three sports are provided.

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Audrey R.C. Elias, Curt D. Hammill, and Ryan L. Mizner

Though essential to athletic performance, the ability to land from a jump often remains limited following injury. While recommended, jump training is difficult to include in rehabilitation programs due to high impact forces. Body weight support (BWS) is frequently used in rehabilitation of gait following neurological and orthopedic injury, and may also allow improved rehabilitation of high-impact tasks. There is a differential effect of BWS on walking and running gaits, and the effect of BWS on movements with relatively large vertical displacement is unknown. The current study evaluates the effect of BWS on a replicable singleleg hopping task. We posited that progressive BWS would decrease limb loading while maintaining the joint kinematics of the task. Twenty-eight participants repetitively hopped on and off a box at each of four BWS levels. Peak vertical ground reaction forces decreased by 22.5% between 0% and 30% BWS (P < .001). Average hip, knee, and ankle internal moments decreased by 0.5 N·m/kg each. Slight kinematic changes across BWS levels were clinically insignificant. The high level of task specificity evidenced by consistent kinematics coupled with a similar reduction of internal moment at each joint suggests that BWS may be a useful strategy for rehabilitation of jumping tasks.