ingestion ( Coyle et al., 1986 ), via a single bolus ingested late in exercise ( Coggan & Coyle, 1989 ), or via glucose infusion following fatigue ( Coggan & Coyle, 1987 ). This systematic approach revealed that prolonged cycling capacity (70–75% V ˙ O 2 max ) is extended by a similar magnitude (∼45 min
Campbell Menzies, Michael Wood, Joel Thomas, Aaron Hengist, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Robbie Jones, Kostas Tsintzas, Javier T. Gonzalez, and James A. Betts
Daniel Jolley, Brian Dawson, Shane K. Maloney, James White, Carmel Goodman, and Peter Peeling
This study investigated the influence of dehydration on urinary levels of pseudoephedrine (PSE) after prolonged repeated effort activity. Fourteen athletes performed a simulated team game circuit (STGC) outdoors over 120 min under three different hydration protocols: hydrated (HYD), dehydrated (DHY) and dehydrated + postexercise fluid bolus (BOL). In all trials, a 60 mg dose of PSE was administered 30 min before trial and at half time of the STGC. Urinary PSE levels were measured before drug administration and at 90 min postexercise. In addition, body mass (BM) changes and urinary specific gravity (USG), osmolality (OSM), creatinine (Cr), and pH values were recorded. No differences in PSE levels were found 90 min postexercise between conditions (HYD: 208.5 ± 116.5; DHY: 238.9 ± 93.5; BOL: 195.6 ± 107.3 μg·ml−1), although large variations were seen within and between participants across conditions (range: 33–475 μg·ml−1: ICC r = .03–0.16, p > .05). There were no differences between conditions in USG, OSM, pH or PSE/Cr ratio. In conclusion, hydration status did not influence urinary PSE levels after prolonged repeated effort activity, with ~70% of samples greater than the WADA limit (>150 μg.ml−1), and ~30% under. Due to the unpredictability of urinary PSE values, athletes should avoid taking any medications containing PSE during competition.
Eric J. Jones, Phil A. Bishop, James M. Green, and Mark T. Richardson
This study compared the effects of a rapid bolus and a slower metered water-consumption rate on urine production and postexercise rehydration. Participants (n = 8) dehydrated by 2% body weight through moderate exercise in an environmentally controlled chamber (35 °C, 55% relative humidity). Breakfast and lunch were standardized for all participants during each 8-hr data-collection period. Rehydration was performed using a volume of water equal to that lost during exercise either as bolus consumption (100% of volume consumed in 1hr; BOL) or metered consumption (12.5% of volume every 30 min for 4 hr; MET). Urine volume was used to assess hydration efficiency (water retained vs. water lost) and net fluid balance at 8 hr. Mean urine outputs were 420 ml (MET) and 700 ml (BOL). A paired-samples t test showed that hydration efficiency was greater for MET (75%) than for BOL (55%; p = .018). These data suggest that metered administration was more effective in maintaining fluid balance. These findings suggest that rehydration rate is a factor in fluid-balance response. For situations in which available fluid volume is restricted, greater hydration efficiency is highly desirable.
Krissy D. Weisgarber, Darren G. Candow, and Emelie S. M. Vogt
To determine the effects of whey protein before and during resistance exercise (RE) on body composition and strength in young adults.
Participants were randomized to ingest whey protein (PRO; 0.3 g/kg protein; n = 9, 24.58 ± 1.8 yr, 88.3 ± 17.1 kg, 172.5 ± 8.0 cm) or placebo (PLA; 0.2 g/kg cornstarch maltodextrin + 0.1 g/kg sucrose; n = 8, 23.6 ± 4.4 yr, 82.6 ± 16.1 kg, 169.4 ± 9.2 cm) during RE (3 sets of 6–10 repetitions for 9 whole-body exercises), which was performed 4 d/wk for 8 wk. PRO and PLA were mixed with water (600 ml); 50% of the solution containing 0.15 g/kg of PRO or PLA was consumed immediately before the start of exercise, and ~1.9% of the remaining solution containing ~0.006 g/kg of PRO or PLA was consumed immediately after each training set. Before and after the study, measures were taken for leantissue mass (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle size of the elbow and knee flexors and extensors and ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors (ultrasound), and muscle strength (1-repetition-maximum chest press).
There was a significant increase (p < .05) in muscle size of the knee extensors (PRO 0.6 ± 0.4 cm, PLA 0.1 ± 0.5 cm), knee flexors (PRO 0.4 ± 0.6 cm, PLA 0.5 ± 0.7 cm) and ankle plantar flexors (PRO 0.6 ± 0.7 cm, PLA 0.8 ± 1.4 cm) and chest-press strength (PRO 16.6 ± 11.1 kg, PLA 9.1 ± 14.6 kg) over time, with no differences between groups.
The ingestion of whey protein immediately before the start of exercise and again after each training set has no effect on muscle mass and strength in untrained young adults.
Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw, Nicolin Tee, Marijke Welvaert, and Louise M. Burke
role in the synthesis of new collagen. In summary, although urinary Hyp is a suitable biomarker of bolus collagen intake for up to 6 hr after its consumption, Hyp is not suitable as a sensitive biomarker for the habitual intake of dietary collagen in free-living individuals. Acknowledgments This study
Kristen L. MacKenzie-Shalders, Neil A. King, Nuala M. Byrne, and Gary J. Slater
Increasing the frequency of protein consumption is recommended to stimulate muscle hypertrophy with resistance exercise. This study manipulated dietary protein distribution to assess the effect on gains in lean mass during a rugby preseason. Twenty-four developing elite rugby athletes (age 20.1 ± 1.4 years, mass 101.6 ± 12.0 kg; M ± SD) were instructed to consume high biological value (HBV) protein at their main meals and immediately after resistance exercise while limiting protein intake between meals. To manipulate protein intake frequency, the athletes consumed 3 HBV liquid protein supplements (22 g protein) either with main meals (bolus condition) or between meals (frequent condition) for 6 weeks in a 2 × 2 crossover design. Dietary intake and change in lean mass values were compared between conditions by analysis of covariance and correlational analysis. The dietary manipulation successfully altered the protein distribution score (average number of eating occasions containing > 20 g of protein) to 4.0 ± 0.8 and 5.9 ± 0.7 (p < .01) for the bolus and frequent conditions, respectively. There was no difference in gains in lean mass between the bolus (1.4 ± 1.5 kg) and frequent (1.5 ± 1.4 kg) conditions (p = .91). There was no clear effect of increasing protein distribution from approximately 4–6 eating occasions on changes in lean mass during a rugby preseason. However, other dietary factors may have augmented adaptation.
Naomi M. Cermak, Peter Res, Rudi Stinkens, Jon O. Lundberg, Martin J. Gibala, and Luc J.C. van Loon
Dietary nitrate supplementation has received much attention in the literature due to its proposed ergogenic properties. Recently, the ingestion of a single bolus of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (500 ml, ~6.2 mmol NO3 −) was reported to improve subsequent time-trial performance. However, this large volume of ingested beetroot juice does not represent a realistic dietary strategy for athletes to follow in a practical, performancebased setting. Therefore, we investigated the impact of ingesting a single bolus of concentrated nitrate-rich beetroot juice (140 ml, ~8.7 mmol NO3 −) on subsequent 1-hr time-trial performance in well-trained cyclists.
Using a double-blind, repeated-measures crossover design (1-wk washout period), 20 trained male cyclists (26 ± 1 yr, VO2peak 60 ± 1 ml · kg−1 · min−1, Wmax 398 ± 7.7 W) ingested 140 ml of concentrated beetroot juice (8.7 mmol NO3 −; BEET) or a placebo (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice; PLAC) with breakfast 2.5 hr before an ~1-hr cycling time trial (1,073 ± 21 kJ). Resting blood samples were collected every 30 min after BEET or PLAC ingestion and immediately after the time trial.
Plasma nitrite concentration was higher in BEET than PLAC before the onset of the time trial (532 ± 32 vs. 271 ± 13 nM, respectively; p < .001), but subsequent time-trial performance (65.5 ± 1.1 vs. 65 ± 1.1 s), power output (275 ± 7 vs. 278 ± 7 W), and heart rate (170 ± 2 vs. 170 ± 2 beats/min) did not differ between BEET and PLAC treatments (all p > .05).
Ingestion of a single bolus of concentrated (140 ml) beetroot juice (8.7 mmol NO3 −) does not improve subsequent 1-hr time-trial performance in well-trained cyclists.
Thomas M. Doering, Peter R. Reaburn, Nattai R. Borges, Gregory R. Cox, and David G. Jenkins
Following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), masters athletes take longer to recover than younger athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of higher than recommended postexercise protein feedings on the recovery of knee extensor peak isometric torque (PIT), perceptions of recovery, and cycling time trial (TT) performance following EIMD in masters triathletes. Eight masters triathletes (52 ± 2 y, V̇O2max, 51.8 ± 4.2 ml•kg-1•min-1) completed two trials separated by seven days in a randomized, doubleblind, crossover study. Trials consisted of morning PIT testing and a 30-min downhill run followed by an eight-hour recovery. During recovery, a moderate (MPI; 0.3 g•kg-1•bolus-1) or high (0.6 g•kg-1•bolus-1) protein intake (HPI) was consumed in three bolus feedings at two hour intervals commencing immediately postexercise. PIT testing and a 7 kJ•kg-1 cycling TT were completed postintervention. Perceptions of recovery were assessed pre- and postexercise. The HPI did not significantly improve recovery compared with MPI (p > .05). However, comparison of within-treatment change shows the HPI provided a moderate beneficial effect (d = 0.66), attenuating the loss of afternoon PIT (-3.6%, d = 0.09) compared with the MPI (-8.6%, d = 0.24). The HPI provided a large beneficial effect (d = 0.83), reducing perceived fatigue over the eight-hour recovery (d = 1.25) compared with the MPI (d = 0.22). Despite these effects, cycling performance was unchanged (HPI = 2395 ± 297 s vs. MPI = 2369 ± 278 s; d = 0.09). In conclusion, doubling the recommended postexercise protein intake did not significantly improve recovery in masters athletes; however, HPI provided moderate to large beneficial effects on recovery that may be meaningful following EIMD.
Karianne Backx, Ken A. van Someren, and Garry S. Palmer
This study investigated the effect of differing fluid volumes consumed during exercise, on cycle time-trial (TT) performance conducted under thermoneutral conditions (20 °C, 70% RH). Ten minutes after consuming a bolus of 6 ml · kg−1 body mass (BM) of a 6.4% CHO solution and immediately following a warm-up, 8 male cyclists undertook a 1-h self-paced TT on 4 separate occasions. During a “familiarization” trial, subjects were given three 5-min periods (15– 20 min, 30–35 min, and 45–50 min) to consume fluid ad libitum. Thereafter subjects undertook, in random order, trials consuming high (HF), moderate (MF), or low fluid (LF) volumes, where 300, 150, and 40 ml of fluid were consumed at 15, 30, and 45 min of each trial, respectively, and total CHO intake was maintained at 57.6 g. During exercise, power output and heart rate were monitored continuously, whilst stomach fullness was rated every 10 min. Additionally, BM loss and BM loss corrected for fluid intake was calculated during each trial. At 40, 50, and 60 min differences in ratings of stomach fullness were found between trials (LF vs. HF and MF vs. HF). There were however no differences in performance or physiological variables (heart rate or BM loss) between trials. These results indicate that when a pre-exercise CHO bolus is consumed, there is no effect of subsequent consumption of different fluid volumes when trained cyclists undertake a 1-h performance task in a thermoneutral environment.
Edwin Chong, Kym J. Guelfi, and Paul A. Fournier
This study investigated whether combined ingestion and mouth rinsing with a carbohydrate solution could improve maximal sprint cycling performance. Twelve competitive male cyclists ingested 100 ml of one of the following solutions 20 min before exercise in a randomized double-blinded counterbalanced order (a) 10% glucose solution, (b) 0.05% aspartame solution, (c) 9.0% maltodextrin solution, or (d) water as a control. Fifteen min after ingestion, repeated mouth rinsing was carried out with 11 × 15 ml bolus doses of the same solution at 30-s intervals. Each participant then performed a 45-s maximal sprint effort on a cycle ergometer. Peak power output was significantly higher in response to the glucose trial (1188 ± 166 W) compared with the water (1036 ± 177 W), aspartame (1088 ± 128 W) and maltodextrin (1024 ± 202W) trials by 14.7 ± 10.6, 9.2 ± 4.6 and 16.0 ± 6.0% respectively (p < .05). Mean power output during the sprint was significantly higher in the glucose trial compared with maltodextrin (p < .05) and also tended to be higher than the water trial (p = .075). Glucose and maltodextrin resulted in a similar increase in blood glucose, and the responses of blood lactate and pH to sprinting did not differ significantly between treatments (p > .05). These findings suggest that combining the ingestion of glucose with glucose mouth rinsing improves maximal sprint performance. This ergogenic effect is unlikely to be related to changes in blood glucose, sweetness, or energy sensing mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract.