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Heather L. Colleran, Andrea Hiatt, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

up to 10% of maternal bone mineral density (BMD) at the trabecular-rich sites (lumbar spine, hip, and femur). 2 Once resumption of menses and weaning occurs, most women return to their baseline BMD levels; however, adolescent mothers, women with short intervals between pregnancies, and older women

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

external (physical activity) forces. This process affects strength and geometry in cortical and trabecular bones, as well as stimulates the release of hormones related to higher bone formation ( 20 , 46 ). Studies have shown a relationship between high-impact sports and the increase of bone mineral density

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Bernadette L. Foster, Jeff W. Walkley and Viviene A. Temple

The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the bone mineral density of women with intellectual disability (WID) and a comparison group (WOID) matched for age and sex. One hundred and five women, ages 21 to 39, M = 29, were tested for their bone mineral density levels at the lumbar spine and three sites of the proximal femur using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. No significant difference between groups existed (λ = 0.94, F(4, 98) = 1.68, p = .16, η2 = .06); however, one-sample t tests revealed that bone mineral density for the WID group (n = 35) was significantly lower than zero at the Ward’s triangle (p < .01) and the lumbar spine (p < .05). Approximately one-quarter of WID had low bone density at these two sites, suggesting that WID may be at risk of osteoporotic fracture as they age.

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Carl Persson, Flinn Shiel, Mike Climstein and James Furness

Low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated conditions such as osteoporosis and osteopenia are health problems that annually costs over 830 million dollars in Australia, and osteoporosis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality ( Johnell & Kanis, 2006 ; Watts et al., 2013 ). The need to

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Kristin S. Ondrak and Don W. Morgan

The influence of height, body mass, daily physical activity (DPA), and dietary calcium intake (DCI) on bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) was evaluated in 33 four-year-old girls. Results indicated that body mass was significantly correlated with and predictive of BMD and BMC at all sites except the femoral neck BMD. DPA and height also explained a significant proportion of the variance in femoral neck BMD and BMC of the lumbar spine and total body. DCI was not related to or predictive of BMD or BMC at any bone site. These findings highlight the importance of engaging in daily weight-bearing physical activity to promote bone health in young girls.

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Peter N. Wiebe, Cameron J.R. Blimkie, Nathalie Farpour-Lambert, Julie Briody, Helen Woodhead, Chris Cowell and Robert Howman-Giles

The correlates and determinants of total body (TB), femoral neck (FN), greater trochanter (GT) and leg areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and FN volumetric (vol) BMD were investigated in 42 healthy 6–10-year-old girls. Predictor variables included age, height, weight, lean tissue mass (LTM), fat mass, percent body fat, physical activity level, calcium intake, isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength and endocrine (E2) status. Bone density and body composition were determined by dual energy-x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and pubertal status was self-determined. LTM, weight, age, knee extensor strength and fat mass were significantly correlated (Pearson correlation coefficients; 0.36 £ r ‡ 0.62) with TBaBMD. These same variables with the addition of height and knee flexor strength were significantly correlated (0.33 £ r ‡ 0.77) with leg aBMD. Only LTM correlated significantly with FNaBMD and none of the independent variables correlated with FNvolBMD or GTaBMD. Only LTM entered as a significant predictor in multiple linear regression analysis (R 2 = 46.7%) for TBaBMD. In conclusion, estradiol status, dietary calcium intake and physical activity level appeared not to be important predictors of BMD in this population, whereas LTM was consistently correlated with most BMD measures and was the single significant determinant of TBaBMD in this study.

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Hawley Chase Almstedt and Zakkoyya H. Lewis

Context:

Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is a common therapeutic modality used to reduce swelling after trauma and prevent thrombosis due to postsurgical immobilization. Limited evidence suggests that IPC may decrease the time needed to rehabilitate skeletal fractures and increase bone remodeling.

Objective:

To establish feasibility and explore the novel use of a common therapeutic modality, IPC, on bone mineral density (BMD) at the hip of noninjured volunteers.

Design:

Within-subjects intervention.

Setting:

University research laboratory.

Participants:

Noninjured participants (3 male, 6 female) completed IPC treatment on 1 leg 1 h/d, 5 d/wk for 10 wk. Pressure was set to 60 mm Hg when using the PresSsion and Flowtron Hydroven compression units.

Main Outcome Measures:

Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess BMD of the hip in treated and nontreated legs before and after the intervention. Anthropometrics, regular physical activity, and nutrient intake were also assessed.

Results:

The average number of completed intervention sessions was 43.4 (± 3.8) at an average duration of 9.6 (± 0.8) wk. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated a significant time-by-treatment effect at the femoral neck (P = .023), trochanter (P = .027), and total hip (P = .008). On average, the treated hip increased 0.5–1.0%, while the nontreated hip displayed a 0.7–1.9% decrease, depending on the bone site.

Conclusion:

Results of this exploratory investigation suggest that IPC is a therapeutic modality that is safe and feasible for further investigation on its novel use in optimizing bone health.

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Igor H. Ito, Han C.G. Kemper, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Kyle R. Lynch, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Enio R. Ronque and Rômulo A. Fernandes

adults, Hinrichs et al ( 14 ) identified in a cross-sectional study with 382 adults [209 women and 173 men (age range 17–30 y old)] that combat athletes have greater bone mineral density (BMD) than endurance athletes, ballet dancers, and nonathlete adults. On the other hand, most of the studies describe

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Manny Felix, Jeff McCubbin and Janet Shaw

Many women with mild to moderate mental retardation (MMR) exhibit low levels of physical activity, muscle strength, and muscle mass, which place these individuals at risk for osteoporosis. Bone mineral density (BMD), the primary index of osteoporosis, of the femoral neck and the whole body was measured in premenopausal women with (M age = 28.14 ± 8.43) and without (M age = 29.64 ± 10.86) mental retardation (MMR and NMR, respectively). Multivariate analyses revealed no differences (p > .05) between groups (MMR = 16, NMR = 16) for BMD values. Significant differences existed (p < .05) between groups on body composition and muscle strength variables. In the MMR group, significant positive relationships (p < .05) were found between lean muscle mass and both femoral neck (r = .74) and whole body (r = .81) BMD. Unaccounted lifestyle factors may have contributed to nonsignificant BMD values between groups.

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Jeanne F. Nichols, Karen P. Nelson, Katrina K. Peterson and David J. Sartoris

The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of high-intensity strength training on bone mineral density (BMD) of 34 non-estrogen-repleted, active women over 60 years of age. The study was designed as a randomized, nonblinded trial in which subjects were stratified into rank-ordered pairs by level of physical activity, then randomly assigned into either a weight training (WT) or a control (CON) group. BMD of the spine (L2–L4), hip, and total body was assessed at 0, 6, and 12 months by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Group-by-time repeated-measures ANOVA demonstrated no effect of weight training on BMD, despite marked gains in muscular strength for all exercises. The high-intensity weight training utilized in this study did not induce positive changes in BMD of the hip and spine of previously active, non-estrogen-repleted older women. However, the protocol was safe, enjoyable, and highly effective in increasing muscular strength.