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Robert G. McCulloch, Donald A. Bailey, Robert L. Whalen, C. Stuart Houston, Robert A. Faulkner and Bruce R. Craven

This cross-sectional study compared differences in os calcis bone density and distal radius bone mineral content (BMC) among adolescent soccer players, competitive swimmers, and control subjects. Sixty-eight males and females (23 soccer players, 20 swimmers, 25 controls) ages 13 to 17 served as subjects. The results for os calcis trabecular density indicate a trend that may be of clinical significance and that may warrant further study. The swimmers had the lowest os calcis density in both sexes whereas the soccer players had the highest bone density at this weight-bearing site (F=2.54, p<.08). No differences with respect to distal radius BMC were observed among activity groups or between sexes.

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

; Waldron-Lynch et al., 2010 ; Warrington et al., 2009 ) have consistently reported that male flat jockeys present with low bone mineral density (BMD), with Z -scores often lower than –1. Such low bone densities are often considered to be due to a combination of nutritional factors, including low energy

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Piotr Kosior, Lukasz Czuraszkiewicz, Marta Tarczynska, Tomasz Mazurkiewicz and Krzysztof Gaweda

Examinations of bone density changes in selected knee bone ends were evaluated prospectively in a randomized group of 28 patients, aged from 41 to 65 (mean: 55.3 years), who had varus deformations of their mechanic limb axes, mean 8 degrees. The examinations were conducted during the preoperative period, 10 days, 3, 6, and 12 weeks, as well as 6 and 12 months after the procedure. A statistically significant increase in bone density was observed in the medial tibial condyle area, while a statistically insignificant decrease of bone density was noted in the medial femoral condyles. Bone density increased in the lateral tibial condyle area, whereas there were no density changes in the area of the lateral femoral condyles. The research results demonstrate that the relief achieved in ailments after high tibial osteotomies does not directly correspond to the bone density of the affected areas.

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Kerri M. Winters-Stone and Christine M. Snow

We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to determine whether 1 year of supplemental calcium intake would augment hip [greater trochanter, GT, femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH)], spine (LS), and femoral mid-shaft (Fmr) BMD in female distance runners. Twenty-three women (age: 23.7 ± 4.7 yrs, height: 165.6 ± 6.3 cm, weight: 55.7 ± 6.1 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 1000 mg/d of supplemental calcium (N = 13) or placebo tablets (N = 10) for 1 year. BMD was determined by DXA (Hologic 1000-W) and tablet compliance by self-report logs. Compliance averaged 79% and 71% for supplement and placebo groups, respectively. Calcium supplementation did not affect hip or spine BMD, but did prevent loss at the femoral mid-shaft (GT: –0.5% vs. 0.2%, FN: 0.9% vs. 1.1%, TH: –0.3% vs. 0.2%, LS: 0.3% vs. 1.2%, Fmr: 0.1% vs. –1.8%, for calcium vs. placebo, respectively). We conclude that the addition of 800 mg/d of supplemental calcium to the diet of young adult female distance runners with habitual calcium intakes of ~1000 mg/d, prevents cortical but not trabecular bone loss.

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Rômulo Maia Carlos Fonseca, Nanci Maria de França and Emmanuel Van Praagh

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between health-related physical fitness and bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents. One hundred forty-four adolescents (65 boys and 79 girls) between 15 and 18 years of age were recruited to this cross-sectional study. Subjects were evaluated in aerobic fitness, muscular fitness, flexibility, body composition, and maturation. BMD of the lumbar spine, total body, and proximal femur were measured by a dual-energy X-ray absorptionmeter. Pearson’s correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used (p < .05). Lean body mass (LBM) and abdominal muscular fitness explained 35–40% of proximal femur BMD in whole group and boys’ total body BMD (43%); however, VO2max and LBM predicted girls’ total body BMD (23%). Lumbar spine BMD was predicted only by LBM for both genders (18% boys, 15% girls). In summary, lean body mass is the main predictor of bone mass during the end of adolescence, regardless of gender, whereas muscular fitness contributes more to bone mass among males than among females.

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Jennifer Sygo, Alexandra M. Coates, Erik Sesbreno, Margo L. Mountjoy and Jamie F. Burr

, and leptin, and can lead to an increase in cortisol and ghrelin ( Hulmi et al., 2017 ; Loucks, 2007 ; Loucks & Thuma, 2003 ; Thong et al., 2000 ). Low energy availability contributes to reduced bone density and an increased risk of stress fracture and osteoporosis ( Keen & Drinkwater, 1997

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Anne-Claire M. Verheul, Angelique N. Prins, Han C.G. Kemper, Alwine F.M. Kardinaal and Marie-Agnes J. van Erp-Baart

The purpose of this study is to validate a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) developed to classify adolescent girls and young adult women according to their level of weight-bearing activities. Twenty-six girls age 11-15 years and 29 women age 20-25 years reported average weekly times spent in several physical activities that were classified according to their weight-bearing levels. The relative validity of the PAQ was determined by comparing findings with a 3-day recording using a Caltrac accelerometer (3DCal) and a 3-day activity diary (3DAD). In the girls, no significant correlations were found between PAQ scores and either 3DCal or 3DAD. In the women, however, significant associations were observed between PAQ and both of these measures (r = .58 and .77, respectively). The validity of PAQ in women is supported by this study, but not in girls.

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Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle R. Lynch, Bruna Turi-Lynch, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Eduardo Zapaterra Campos, Suziane Ungari Cayres and Romulo Araújo Fernandes

active during childhood is an effective way to boost bone density and reduce the prevalence of osteoporosis-related fractures in the future ( 15 ). The osteogenic effect of exercise occurs through bone remodeling caused by mechanical stress, which is generated by internal (muscle contractions) and

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Lauren A. Burt, David A. Greene and Geraldine A. Naughton

High-impact activities have been shown to increase bone density more than low-impact or weight-supported sports ( 27 , 30 ). Gymnastics is a substantially high-impact sport, and among female gymnasts, higher bone density has been reported ( 4 ). Because gymnastics is an early specialization sport