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Vincent Baribeau, Christopher Kirk, Danny Q. Le, Arjun Bose, Ariel Mueller, Duncan French, Todd Sarge, Carl Langan-Evans, Reid Reale, and Kadhiresan R. Murugappan

Professional mixed martial arts (MMA) and boxing are popular global combat sports attracting millions of spectators each year. 1 Competitors are separated into body mass (BM) divisions (colloquially known as weight classes or categories) intended to promote fair and safe competition between

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Gemma N. Parry, Lee C. Herrington, Ian G. Horsley, and Ian Gatt

plyometric muscular contractions. 8 Recently, the CMPU or plyometric push up in relation to upper limb performance parameters has been reliably assessed using force-plate- and force–time-derived parameters. 2 – 4 , 11 Boxing is a nonsymmetrical sport that requires the development of accuracy, strength, and

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, and Louise M. Burke

All Olympic combat sports (currently, judo, taekwondo, boxing, and wrestling) separate athletes by body mass (BM) into “weight” divisions to minimize size/strength disparities. To ensure athletes meet weight requirements, official weigh-ins are held before competition. In addition to reducing body

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Anne Tjønndal

more areas of sport, demanding equal participation. When women’s boxing made the Olympic program in London 2012, women were for the first time allowed to compete in all summer events ( Tjønndal, 2017a ). Hence, boxing was the last Olympic event to include women’s participation. Men’s boxing on the

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Philip Davis, Peter R. Benson, Robert Waldock, and Andrew J. Connorton

Female boxing debuted at the 2012 London Olympic Games. To better understand the performance aspects of the sport, video footage of eighteen 4 × 2-min bouts were analyzed. The boxers involved in the competition were of an elite level (mean ± SD), age 26.4 ± 4.6 y, height 169.3 ± 6.2 cm, and weight 60.3 ± 10.0 kg. Analysis revealed an activity rate of ~1.6 actions/s, including ~16 punches, ~3.3 defensive movements, and ~63 vertical hip movements, all per minute, over the 4 × ~132-s rounds (R). A 2 × 4 (outcome × round) ANOVA with repeated measures over the rounds was used to analyze the data. Winners maintained a higher activity rate in round 1 (R1) and R2; a higher movement rate in R2, R3, and R4; and an increased punch accuracy including the ratio of total punches to punches landed in R3 and air punches as a percentage of punches missed in R1 and R3. Specific techniques that discriminate between successful and unsuccessful female amateur boxers include the straight rear-hand and body punches, higher for winners in R1, as well as uppercut punches and defensive foot movements, higher for winners in R4. Findings highlight the current demands of elite amateur female boxing. These data will be useful for those designing training programs and may also be useful for guiding sport-specific fitness testing.

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Georgia Allen, Claire Thornton, and Holly Riby

individual sports such as track and field (e.g.,  Todd & Brown, 2003 ). There is a paucity of research on specific individual-combat sports, and as far as we are aware no studies have explored the role of SRs in the sport of boxing. By its nature, boxing is an individual sport that involves a great deal of

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MacIntosh Ross and Kevin B. Wamsley

in sport is well documented. 1 The history of women’s participation in combative sports such as boxing has been a subject of limited inquiry in Canada. It is well known that all social classes of men participated in violent confrontations to settle disputes, to defend honor, and for fun, competition

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Michael Maliszewski

Combat oriented sports and activities have come under increasing scrutiny by the media and professional groups. In particular, within the last 5 years boxing has been a primary topic of concern. A variety of medical groups—neurological, pediatric, and general practice—have conducted extensive surveys and provided position policy statements regarding dangers associated with involvement in such an activity. Although the American Psychological Association recently endorsed a position advocating close scrutiny and eventual banning of amateur and professional boxing in 1987, surprisingly no serious review of the literature or empirical studies have been conducted with respect to a psychological evaluation of this sport. This article briefly reviews the evidence supporting the APA position on boxing.

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Jason P. Shurley and Janice S. Todd

In recent years there has been a significant increase in the scrutiny of head trauma in football. This attention is due largely to a host of studies that have been highly publicized and linked the repetitive head trauma in football to late-life neurological impairment. Scientists and physicians familiar with boxing have been aware of such impairment, resulting from repeated head impacts, for more than 80 years. Few, however, made the connection between the similarity of head impacts in boxing and football until recent decades. This article examines the medical and scientific literature related to head trauma in both boxing and football, paying particular attention to the different emphases of that research. Further, the literature is used to trace the understanding of sport-related chronic head trauma as well as how that understanding has prompted reform efforts in each sport. Finally, in light of the current understanding of the long-term sequelae of repetitive head trauma, some consideration is given to what football administrators can learn from the reform efforts in boxing.

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Mitchell J. Finlay, Craig A. Bridge, Matt Greig, and Richard M. Page

Although the application of PAPE is a widely adopted practice, a recent study highlighted a lack of conditioning activities (CAs) applied in a typical amateur boxer’s prebout warm-up. 11 In that particular study, a large focus on activity such as shadow boxing, padwork, stretching, and mobility was